in modern Russian decided to allocate five basic styles of speech.Each of them is characterized by certain segments of the population and types of journalism.The most difficult to grasp is considered to be a scientific style of speech.The reason for this is the large number of inclusions in the text of specialized terms.
Scientific language is a means of communication in teaching, research and professional and analytical activities.With this style of writing texts in real life for one reason or another faced every person without exception.Many people are more receptive to scientific language orally.Today, mastering the rules of this style is one of the most important components of Russian culture.The scientific question is often referred to the literary (bookish) language.The reason for this are the conditions of functioning and stylistic features as monologic character, the desire for normalization terminology, thinking of each statement and a strict list of means of expression.
History of Science style
it appeared due to the rapid development of various areas of knowledge in the new narrow-profile areas of life.Initially, this style of presentation can be compared with the artistic narration.However, in the Alexandrian period scientific language is gradually separated from the literature.In those days the Greeks often used special terminology that ordinary people simply could not perceive properly.Also during this period they began to detect signs of scientific style.
originally specialized terminology was only in Latin.Soon, however, scientists from around the world have begun to translate it into their own languages.However, an international mode of transmission of scientific information and to this day it is still Latin.During the Renaissance, many professors strove for accuracy and brevity of writing texts, to the maximum move away from the artistic elements of presentation, as literary emotion contrary to the canons of logical mapping of things.
«Liberation" scientific style is slow.An example is Descartes unflattering remarks on the works of Galileo, that the text is too fictionalized.This opinion is shared by Kepler, considering that Italian physicist unnecessarily often resorts to the artistic description of the nature of things.Over time, a model of style was the work Nyutona.Russky scientific language began to develop only in the early 18th century.During this period, the authors of specialized publications and translators began to create its own terminology.In the mid-18th century, Mikhail Lomonosov, along with his followers gave impetus to the formation of the scientific style.Many masters have relied on the works of Russian scientist, but finally folded together terminology was only in the late 19th century.
Types of scientific style
Currently there are two classifications: traditional and advanced.By modern standards, the Russian language providing 4 kinds of scientific style.Each of them has its own specific features and requirements.
1. The popular science text.Its target audience is, with no special skills or knowledge in a particular area.Popular science text retains the majority of the terms and clarity of presentation, but his character has been simplified to read.Also in this style it is allowed to use the emotional and expressive forms of speech.Its purpose is to familiarize the general public with some facts and phenomena.No wonder at the end of the 1980s there was a subspecies of the style - the scientific and literary text.It minimized the use of technical terms and numbers, but their presence has a detailed explanation.
for popular scientific style is characterized by the following features: a comparison with everyday objects, ease of reading and listening, facilitation, narration of private events without classification and a general review.Exposition of this kind often are printed in books, magazines, children's encyclopedias.
2. Educational and scientific text.The addressee of such work are students.The purpose of the message - acquaintance with the facts necessary for the perception of a certain material.Information is presented in a general way with more typical examples.This style inherent in the use of professional terminology, strict classification and smooth transitions from the survey to particular cases.Works published in the learning and teaching posobiyah.3.Strictly scientific text.Here are the addressee skilled in the art and academics.The aim is to describe the specific facts, discoveries and laws.Scientific style, examples of which can be found in dissertations, reports and reviews, not only allows the use of terminology, but also personal bezemotsionalnye conclusions.
4. Technical and scientific text.Works of this type of address style specialists narrow profile.The aim is to use the knowledge and advances in practice.
In the extended classification, in addition to the above-mentioned species, also includes informativno- reference and scientific texts.
basis of scientific style
Variability of species of the language is based on the general properties of linguistic speech activity, manifested irrespective of the field (human, exact and natural sciences) and genre distinctions.
the field of scientific communication style is very different in that its purpose is unambiguous logical expression of thought.The primary form of such language will be concepts, reasoning, dynamic judgments that appear in sequence.Scientific speech should always be filled with arguments that podcherchivali be logical thought.All judgments are based on the synthesis and analysis of available information.
Signs scientific text style take abstracted and generalized nature.Common extralinguistic features and properties of speech are:
- abstraction and generalization of presentation.Virtually every word refers to any term or abstract thing.In the narrow circles to hear such a thing as a generalized scientific style.Examples of its distinctive features: the predominance of nouns in the text, the use of common concepts, the use of verbs in different forms, passive constructions phrases.
- logical presentation.All statements are built consistently and unambiguously, the facts related.This is achieved through the use of special syntax and characteristic means of communication.
- accuracy of presentation.This property scientific style of speech is achieved due to the frequent use of terms, unambiguous expressions and vocabulary understandable words.
- proof of presentation.Each argument must be supported by appropriate arguments.Saturation presentation.Semantic load report exhausts the selected area of science.
- objective presentation.Lack of personal look at the meaning of the text transmission.All statements focused on the subject of the report and take on the impersonal form of speech.
Scientific style finds its expression and systematic in certain units of speech.His linguistic characteristics can be 3 types:
- lexical units.Determine the functional and stylistic color of the text.They are characterized by specific morphological forms and syntactic structures.
- stylistic unity.Responsible for neutral functional load text.Thus, the determining factor is their quantitative predominance in the report.Separately marked units occur as morphological forms.Less often, they can acquire syntax.
- mezhstilevaya unit.Also referred to as the neutral language elements.They are used in all styles of speech.Occupies the largest part of the text.
Scientific style and signs
Every shape and form of speech has its own demonstration properties.The main features of scientific style: lexical, syntactic and linguistic.
The first type features include the use of specialized terminology and phraseology.Lexical features of scientific style of speech most often found in the words of a specific value.Examples: "body" - a term from physics, "acid" - from chemistry, etc.Also, these characteristics inherent in generalising the use of words such as "commonly", "usual", "regular".Expressive vocabulary and conversation should not be used.On the other hand, the phrase allowed cliché, various figures and characters.In this case, should contain links to sources of information.It is important that it has been filled international words.The story comes from a third party without the frequent use of synonyms.Lexical features of scientific style - 6th grade in high school, so it should be done in popular language.Uzkoprofilnye rasprostranena.Lingvisticheskie terminology is not a scientific text style attributes should meet requirements such as objectivity and unemotional.It is important that all the phrases and concepts are ambiguous.
syntactic features of scientific style: the use of a special sense of the pronoun "we", the prevalence of complex structures proposals, the use of the predicate.The information is fed into an impersonal form of the standard word order.Actively used explanatory, passive and plug design proposals.
All the main features of scientific style of speech suggest a special composition of the text.The report shall be divided into parts with the appropriate title.It is important that the text consisted of an introduction, foundations and conclusions.
Scientific style: lexical signs
professional speech in the main form of thought and expression is the concept.That is why this style lexical unit represents an abstract object or phenomenon.Clearly and accurately such specialized concepts allow to disclose the terms.None of these words or phrases denoting an action in a narrow range of activities, it is impossible to imagine modern scientific style.Examples of such terms: numerical methods, zenith, atrophy, range, radar, phase prism temperature, a symptom of a laser, and many others.
Inside lexical system, these expressions are always clear.They do not require expression and are not considered neutral with respect to style.The terms called conditional language scientific spheres.Many of them came to the Russian lexicon of English or Latin.
Today, the term is considered to be a separate conceptual unit of communication between people.Such lexical features of scientific style quantitatively in specialized reports and work much prevail over other types of expressions.According to statistics, the terminology is about 20% of the text.In scientific language it embodies uniformity and specifics.Definition of the term gives a definition, that is a brief description of the object or phenomenon.Each concept in scientific language can be identified.
terms have a number of specific features.In addition to the uniqueness and accuracy, is the simplicity, consistency and stylistic certainty.Also one of the main requirements to the terms is present (current), that they are not obsolete.As you know, in science it decided to replace some of the newer concepts and capacious.In addition, the terms should be as close to the international language.For example: a hypothesis, technology, communication and others.It is worth noting that to date, most of the terms have generally accepted international derivation (bio, extra anti neo, mini, Mark and others).
total uzkoprofilnye concepts are public and Interscience.The first group includes terms such as the analysis of the problem, the thesis process, etc., the second - the economy, labor, cost.The most serious are highly specialized to grasp the concept.The terms of this lexical group of characters for a specific field of science.
concepts in professional speech used in only one specific meaning.In that case, if the term is a multi-valued, it must be accompanied by defining the word that clarifies its direction.From concepts that need specifics, the following: the body, the strength, movement, size.
summarized in scientific style is often achieved by the use of a large number of abstract lexical units.In addition, a professional language has its specific characteristic phraseology.It includes such phrases as the "solar plexus", "participial turnover", "ramp", "a", "used to", etc.
terminology not only provides information on understanding the international level, but also the compatibility of regulatory and legislative documents.
Scientific style: linguistic features narrow profile
The language sphere of communication characterized by its morphological features.Generalization and abstraction of speech appear in separate grammatical units, which are found in the choice of forms and categories of presentation.Characterized by linguistic features of scientific style repetition frequency in the text, that is, the degree of quantitative load.
unspoken law of economy of lexical means makes use of short phrases variations.One way to reduce stress is to change the language of forms of nouns with feminine to the masculine (eg: key - key).A similar situation is and with the plural, which is replaced by a single.Example: linden blossoms in June.In this case, we have in mind is not one specific tree, and all the family of plants.Real nouns can sometimes be used in the plural: great depths, the noise in the radio receiving station, etc.
concepts in scientific language significantly prevail over the names of action.It is made artificially in order to reduce consumption of verbs in the text.Most often, these are replaced with parts of speech, nouns.The scientific style of eating verbs leads to a loss of lexical meaning, turning the presentation into an abstract form.Therefore these parts of speech in the reports are only used to communicate words: be, be, be, be called, do, be, have, considered, defined and etc.
On the other hand, in scientific language, a separate group of verbs that serve as elements of the combination.In this case, they transmit the value of linguistic exposition.Examples: cause of death, to perform calculations.Often, the scientific style of communication used by the abstract semantics of verbs: be, to exist, continue to occur and others.It is also allowed to use a grammatically weakened form: the distillation is carried out, drawing conclusions, etc.
Another language feature is the use of the timeless style of the speech quality value.This is done to indicate the characteristics and properties of the investigated phenomena or objects.It is noteworthy that the verbs in the past timeless values can include only scientific text (examples of texts: reports of experiments, reports on research) .In professional language predicates registered in 80% of cases are used in an imperfect form, that the presentation was of a generalized nature.Some verbs that are used in the form of the future tense in stable speed.For example: consider, prove, etc.
Regarding the personal pronouns, the scientific style they are used in accordance with the nature of abstraction text.In rare cases, such forms as "we" and "you" because they concretize the narrative and handling.In professional language widely pronoun 3rd person.
scientific style: syntactic signs
For this kind of speech is characterized by the pursuit of complex design proposals.This allows you to more accurately convey the meaning of concepts, to establish communication between the terms, causes, consequences and conclusions.Syntactic features of scientific style of text characterized by generalization and uniformity of parts of speech.
most common types of proposals are subordinate components.Sophisticated forms of unions and adverbs are also part of the presentation (scientific text).Examples of the general thrust of the texts can be found in encyclopedias and textbooks.To unite all the parts of speech used binders phrases: In conclusion, therefore, etc.