Social Capital : links with economic attitudes , perceptions and models of economic behavior

Introduction

country's economic development, as well as the economic behavior of the population - these issues are relevant to Russia in the context of globalization.Search the best factors of economic development, which in the context of the culture and historical heritage of the country will be responsible global trends and will allow Russia to find their own path of development and to overcome the obstacles that are rooted in a multinational culture, scientists have become a key issue.Economic behavior of the population, which is one of the key conditions for the transformation of society, caused by certain social and psychological mechanisms shaping the economic attitudes and beliefs and at the same time adjusting them.

concept of social capital at the moment, according to some scientists, is also associated with the economic development, building civil society, support for political reforms, formation of personal well-being, immigration and other phenomena (see., Eg, Putnam, RD (1996) 'The

Strange Disappearance of Civic America' in the American Prospect. PP 7-24; Coleman, JC (1988) 'Social capital in the creation of human capital' American Journal of Sociology, Vol 94: PP. 95-S120.etc.) .. Social capital accumulation in addition to its properties as a result of the use of the function assigned to enhance the action of other forms of capital, such as human or economic.Byway is the consideration of social capital within the framework of socio-psychological research, where the concept is understood as a system of relations, "the totality of psychological attitudes that promote physical and psychological well-being of individuals and groups, not to the detriment of other subjects of the economic system" (op. At Cultural values ​​and modelseconomic behavior ... 2011, p. 258).

consideration of social capital as a psychological mechanism of economic behavior will be the main objective of our work.In turn, the assessment of the economic behavior of measured economic ideas and attitudes, as well as the most typical and socially important for social groups forms of economic behavior - the behavior of the economic scenario, which will be discussed below.

formulate theoretical hypothesis of our research: social capital is correlated with economic installations and performances, as well as estimates of economic behavior.Moreover, taking into account the particular situation in Russia and most importantly its constituent ethnic groups, we assume that there are differences in the relationship declared parameters in representatives of different ethnic groups.

The work consists of two parts.The first is an analytical overview of the recent publications in the field of the study of social capital and the economy, economic behavior, we make a special emphasis on the consideration of controversial issues in the theory of the influence of social capital on economic realities, identify side factors that are highlighted in this issue.In the second part of the paper presents the results of empirical research on the stated theme, given the possible interpretation of the ties and the combined conclusions.

Theoretical review: communication problems of social equity and economic reality

considering the results of studies on the stated theme, the reservation that in the first place, each of them uses a specific definition of social capital, sometimes the content is different in differentauthors.

SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ECONOMICS

There are studies aimed at studying the effect of different kinds of social capital on economic behavior and economic situation in the country.However, viewed as the reverse situation where the economic development is the impetus for the formation of social capital.

At the beginning of an excerpt from the discourse Chu Yan (Yuan K. Chou, 2005), which analyzes the impact of the levels of social capital in the socio-economic reality.Author after predecessors argues that cross-country differences in the expression of social capital are determined to a large extent the responsibility of the state to support public relations and organizations.(Yuan K. Chou, 2005).The author emphasizes that in the use of social capital in a private conversation, or whether the conduct of business, social capital as existing cements social bonds, and build up their new levels.Without economic support from the state the positive impact of social capital in the society will be complicated, and economic activity often takes the forced nature [1].State support, the low level of capital and economic development are (being well-developed) is a growth factor and the development of positive relations in the community (Ann Dale, Lenore Newman, 2010).Social capital does have a high positive impact on economic development, but most of it is in countries with stable democracies, those in which there is only the emergence of economic stability, social capital does not bring the desired positive impact in the absence of support from the state (Babken V. Babajanian,2008).

example, Philip Mladovski and Ellis Mosilyalos studying international program CBHI («Community-Based Health Insurance» - health insurance on the basis of membership in a particular community) that was created to control the area of ​​health in poor countries and found thatthe level of social capital in a society has a significant impact on the success or failure of the control activities and health organizations.One of the mechanisms referred to focus on the needs of the market (ie, the level of social capital).The sheer number of intercompany relationships may even reduce the effectiveness of measures meant to strengthen corruption klienttsentrizma and trends to carry out financial transactions informally, while linking the role of social capital in the form of a more professional relations (with the government, NGOs, local authorities inside and outside the health sector) is a factor of success (Philipa Mladovsky, Elias Mossialos, 2008).

There are also conflicting reports, according to which the elements of social capital (trust, tolerance, diversity of the society), as harbingers of the birth of civil society influence on the economic development of the region, but only in certain cultural contexts, namely when comparing the data of the West and the East onExample Japan (Westlund and Calidoni, 2010).The authors of a study conducted in Japan, sees a possible explanation for this phenomenon in a stronger Japan significance of informal groups, their number and the number of (the possible parameters of social capital were not measured in the study), - that is, those unaccounted for conditions that have one of the most powerfulinfluences the behavior of the Japanese, and, in fact, become dimensions of social capital particular society ..

Continuing the theme give a description of another study in 2008, conducted by Jan Fidrmuk and Clarita Gertshani (Jan Fidrmuc, Klarita Gërxhani, 2008), where the measurementThe authors used the social capital variables, such as civic participation, trust, density of social networks, altruism, analyzing the results, the authors compared the results of the representatives of East and West, by controlling such variables as income, the economic indicators of the country and development of its institutions.Final results confirmed the hypothesis of the authors: the differences in the level of social capital were significant factors excluding controlled and disappear at their control.The authors conclude from this variation of social capital in different communities and cultures, which is determined, rather, the level of economic development and the weakness of social institutions, particularly the prevalence of corruption, and not, as previously thought, the legacy of the communist past.

social capital and economic behavior

The study Wei Cheng, dedicated to the identification of the impact of social capital on innovation mainly in organizations, shows that three dimensions: structural, cognitive and system of relationships - together form a complex model of influence on innovative behaviorManagers of China.Group size, the strength of relationships, hierarchy, structural gaps defined as a cognitive element of social capital, and the amount of shared information and power among members of the group, which, in turn, create favorable conditions for the deployment of innovative activity.Trust and shared standards have a positive impact on innovative behavior, but it is mediated by, respectively, the type of trust, and the stage at which there are innovations (Wei Zheng, 2010).Similarly Veybing Zhao showed that the structural dimension of social capital is positively correlated with the level of severity as the entrepreneurial spirit, and with the probability of starting a business in the tourism sector.Measurement of the ratio shows a positive relationship with the capacity for entrepreneurship, but it does not detect a significant association with the possibility of the creation of the business.The cognitive level showed no significant associations in both cases (Weibing Zhao, 2011).

laboratory experiment conducted by Stephen Fry and Bruno Meier (Frey. Meier, 2004) on the students of the University of Zurich, has been focused on how the social capital (ie the perceived level of prosocial behavior) affects the behavior of a student.For seven years it monitored the behavior of students, by paying for their education, while students were asked to donate a small amount into a fund to support students.Students participating in the experiment were divided into groups: one group reported data on the lower percentage of donations in the other - a high percentage in the third - was held a poll on the expected level of donations.The results showed that, firstly, the higher the expectations of the students were on the percentage of donations of others, the more likely that they will donate to the fund.Secondly, when the students reported that usually donate to both fund their willingness to similar behavior greatly increased (Frey. Meier, 2004).In general conclusion is that prosocial behavior is largely determined by information on prosocial behavior of other people or ideas about this behavior.

Luke Crudeli investigated economic activity in the rental among the different countries.According to the author, the relationship of cooperation often occur in developing countries as an incentive for economic behavior are considered economic opportunities and interpersonal relationships, rather than a holistic concept of social capital.(Luca Crudeli, 2006).

the example of the Indian community in opposition to the theories about the beneficial effects of social capital on the economies of communities to develop Western researchers, Paradise Jay Das showed how poverty rate counterbalanced high level of social capital, not at all challenging way out of distress, but rather supportshim.The author examines the norms of reciprocity and mutual support, characteristic of poor workers in India (such as the provision of food and things in debt or for temporary use) as a forced relationship of the population conscious of the interdependence and the instability of the situation, the practice of borrowing and mutual support, ensure survival butnot blagotvorstvuyuschie economic activity and resolve the plight.Communication, according to the author, are important when there is a divide that by themselves are not making people richer or poorer.Thus, the author of paramount importance gives no social capital, and social status, class and material situation of the population, which regulate and set certain economic relationships between people (Raju J Das, 2004).

FEATURES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND CULTURE AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

worth mentioning a study on the behavior of Russian managers and entrepreneurs of the new generation (receiving Western education or frequently dealing in foreign colleagues) in the business environment.Its purpose was the explanation for the contradictory data on low level of social capital at the community level and very high - on a personal characteristic of Russia, that is, identifying culturally conditioned measuring social capital.Using the measurement of social capital proposed by Napier and Goshaly (system of relations, cognitive and structural dimension) Bela Butler and Sharon Pёrchas up model of the network of relationships within the Russian companies.The results of the study were data-depth interviews with nine owners or heads of Russian companies.The authors show that Russian managers structural component of social capital arises from the fact that the old connections in the business environment, built on the knowledge, strength, capabilities, confidence and power, supported if they are useful, while new links are created on the basis ofexperience and reliability.The measuring system of relations the authors identify important characteristic of Russian commitment, reputation and credibility.These factors allow the Russian, not paying attention to the numbers and figures, to invest in a particular proposal or to support, not relying on short-term returns, and investing in long-term cooperation.(Bella Butler and Sharon Purchase, 2008).

According to the latest data from Rosstat, analyzed employment and unemployment in the regions of the Caucasus, 38% of residents were named as the main source of income dependency, and 25% - benefit.The highest levels of unemployment recorded in Ingushetia - 42.4% and Chechnya - 40.2%, compared to the Russian average of about 7%.At the same time the population of the North Caucasus shows a higher percentage of entrepreneurs in the population of 8.2% against 3.4% for Russia as a whole.Needless to say that the business at such a high level of unemployment and despair (in the population trends almost no job search) is an incentive to forced entrepreneurship.Practice has shown that the reduction of subsidies not only does not encourage people to new forms of economic behavior, but also increases the level of migration and rising tensions.(Employment and Unemployment, El. Resource).Taking into account these data, it is necessary to be cautious about our results, knowing that can not be discounted that the crisis economic situation that currently prevails in the Caucasus and the economic conditions that regardless of the severity of those or other parameters of social capital will befundamental factors of a particular behavior.

Methods of empirical research

study participants.

survey was conducted in seven regions of Russia.Ethnic groups were presented by Russian representatives of the peoples of the North Caucasus Caucasus (Chechens, Ossetians and Ingush) and Tatars, the total number of 1286 people.

For detection of ethnic features in the relationship we shared a selection on the following principle:

1. Of the group of Russian respondents were selected by representatives from Moscow (321 people) and the regions (the Chechen Republic, the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania, Ingushetia,Magadan region., Stavropol Territory) numbering 355 people.

2. From the representatives of the regions represented by the following ethnic groups:

Ingush, Ossetians, Chechens.In Table 1 one can see a more detailed description of the study sample.

Table 1. Characteristics of the study sample

Region

Ethnic group

Number of respondents

Paul

husband / wife

Age

Moscow andThe Moscow region

Russian

321

178 husband

143 wives

Min: 16

Max: 64

Median : 40

MagadanRegion

Russian

223

101 husband

122 wives

Min: 17

Max: 70

Median : 26

Republic of North