Pollution of the world's oceans: the importance of the issue, the main factors and ways to overcome

If you look at photos of our planet made from space, it is unclear why it was called "Earth".More than 70% of its surface covered by water, which is 2.5 times the land area.At first glance, it seems unlikely that contamination of the world's oceans may be so significant that this problem will require the attention of all humanity.However, the facts and figures cast serious thinking and begin to take action, not only to save and maintain the Earth's ecology, but also to ensure the survival of humanity.

Major sources and factors

problem of pollution of the oceans each year is a growing concern.Harmful substances in it come mainly from river water which each year brings in the cradle of humanity more than 320 million tons of iron salts, more than 6 million. Tons of phosphorus, not to mention the thousands of other chemical compounds.In addition, pollution of the world's oceans comes also from the atmosphere: 5 th. Tons of mercury, 1 million tons of hydrocarbons, 200 ths. Tons of lead.Their water gets a

bout a third of all mineral fertilizers used in agriculture, only phosphorus and nitrogen annually gets about 62 million tonnes.Because of this rapidly developing some unicellular algae forming on the surface of the ocean places huge "blanket" in the whole area of ​​square kilometers and a thickness of more than 1.5 meters.Acting like the press, they slowly suffocate all life in the seas.Their rotting absorbs oxygen from the water, which contributes to the death of benthic organisms.And of course, the pollution of waters of the world ocean is directly related to the use of humankind oil and petroleum products.With their production from offshore fields, as well as a result of runoff and tanker accidents annually pours from 5 to 10 million tons.The oil film that forms on the surface of the water, blocking the vital activity of phytoplankton, which is one of the main producers of atmospheric oxygen, moisture and violates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean, killing young fish and other marine organisms.In the bottomless depths of the cradle of humanity has got more than 20 million tons of solid domestic and industrial waste, and a huge amount of radioactive substances (1,5-109 Ci).The biggest pollution of the world's oceans occurs in shallow coastal zone, ie,on the shelf.It is here that most of the proceeds livelihoods of marine organisms.

Ways of overcoming

Currently, the problem of protecting the world's oceans has become so urgent that applies even to those countries that do not have direct access to its border.Through the United Nations now operates a number of important agreements related to the regulation of fishing, shipping, mining of the deep sea, etc.The most famous among them is the "Charter of the seas", signed in 1982 by most countries around the world.In developed countries, the system works and resolution prohibiting economic measures to help prevent contamination.The state of the Earth's atmosphere followed numerous "green" society.Of great importance is education and educational work, the result of which is clearly visible on the example of the same in Switzerland, where the love of the nature of the country children perceive the mother's milk!No wonder that after they grow up, the idea of ​​attempting to overthrow the purity and beauty of this beautiful country looks blasphemy.There are other technological and organizational means of struggle aimed at to prevent further pollution of the world's oceans.The main task for each of us - it's not to be indifferent, and make every effort to ensure that our planet looked like a paradise, which it originally was.