GAZ-12 specifications and photos

first Soviet luxury car GAZ-12 (ZIM) was made in the workshops of the Gorky Automobile Plant in the period from 1949 to 1959.The car was intended for internal use only members of the government, senior party leaders.


Development model GAZ-12 was carried out in a short time, did not have time to build a new home outside the parameters of the machine, so the basis of the US took the "Buick" release in 1948.Copy exterior were not used only the basic outlines.


Body GAZ-12 made a sound, all-metal, is separated frame was not.As a separate body element used only the sub-module that attaches to the bottom of the front end bolt.I must say that the design bureau of the plant has assumed some risk taking as a basis frameless, as a six-seater car with three rows of seats requires mandatory supply of stiffness along the length of which can only provide a strong frame structure of channel.

However, everything was decided the best way: the necessary supply of hardness was created by

diagonal welded sections located throughout the plane of the bottom of the car.Thus it was possible to reduce the overall weight of the body without losing the strength factor.

But during the operation of vehicles with body GAZ-M-12 became identified serious defects caused by loss of rigidity of the bearing members.Structural strength weakened due to constant vibration loads, as well as the stress caused by rocking the machine in a longitudinal plane.As a result of the frameless version of body had to be abandoned.


Initially, GAZ-12 is assembled by hand, while preparing documentation on serial conveyor process.Mass production of the vehicle was made possible by a high degree of harmonization, which by some measures reached 50 percent.Many components and assemblies were borrowed from the model of "Winning the M-20", the truck GAZ-51 and later - GAZ-53-12, which at that time was in development.


On cars the upgraded engine GAZ-11 with a cylinder capacity of 3485, 90 hp, with which up to 120 kilometers per hour and a top speed of GAZ-12.

engine, powertrain characteristics:

  • type of petrol;
  • number of cylinders - 6;
  • stroke - 110 mm;
  • cylinder diameter - 82 mm;
  • compression ratio - 6.7;
  • food - carburetor K-21;
  • cooling water;
  • gasoline consumption in mixed mode - 19 liters per 100 km;
  • recommended fuel - gasoline A70, A72.


car GAZ-12 was equipped with a manual transmission with the following features:

  • type - hydro-synchronized;
  • number of speeds - 3;
  • gears - helical pairs;
  • control - mechanical switching lever drive.


Looks vehicle met the requirements of the time, the contours of the body are rounded, smooth transitions, gave the impression of integrity construction.It was a trend that is followed by all US manufacturers of passenger cars, is no exception and ZIM.GAZ-12 was the first multi-class car, and, of course, the car was a source of pride as a creator, and those people for whom it was intended.

car was involved in all the festive demonstrations, exhibited at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements, in the pavilion "automotive industry of the USSR."Despite existing at the time of the "iron curtain" between the Land of the Soviets and the Western states, GAZ-12 were taken abroad for display at auto shows in Berlin, Madrid and Paris.


Salon Soviet limousine was decorated in accordance with the concepts of luxury that period.All metal parts in the cabin were covered with a decorative pattern and decoration precious woods has added an impression of luxury.The floors in the car was covered with carpets sure that contributed almost complete soundproofing.

The level of luxury in the interior decoration of the 12th model of its superior government only ZIS-110, which has never operated either as a taxi or as ambulance, and was considered the senior management of passenger cars in the USSR.

selling cars in private hands

GAZ-12 was the first and last class car, which can be purchased at retail.The cost of the car until 1961 was 40 000.At that time it was a lot of money, considering that the average wage of a Soviet person does not exceed 650 rubles.Luxury car "Winning the M-20" was worth 16,000 rubles, and "Moskvich-401" - nine thousand.Thus, the queue for ZIMom not lined up, but scientists and important artists in this car was owned.

In the early seventies there was a mass cancellation of GAZ-12 from government agencies.These cars have gained private traders, who could not buy a new "Zhiguli", which cost about five thousand.

Today ZIM can be found in various, sometimes unexpected places.On some machines are engines of trucks, it is inconceivable transmission and all sorts of exotic mechanisms.Machinery in a factory complete set - a rarity.

New Fashion and end production

By the end of the 50s model GAZ-12 began to rapidly lose its reputation.The global automotive fashion abruptly changed direction throughout a modernization of factory equipment for the body fundamentally new form.