In March 1965 took the flight of the spacecraft "Voskhod-2".Before the crew of cosmonauts PABelyaev and AALeonov had a difficult, but very important task - to make the first person in the history of access to open space.
direct implementation of the experiment fell to Alexei Leonov, and 18 March, he successfully coped with it.Cosmonaut went into space, away from the ship to 5 meters and held beyond a total of 12 minutes and 9 seconds.
Flight "Sunrise" was not without emergency situations and curious cases.It's hard to describe how much mental and physical strength had to spend the people who prepared this grand experiment - the output of man into space.Interesting facts and little-known details of the flight and it became the basis for the preparation of this article.
idea that the way a person into space is possible, appeared at the Queen in 1963.Designer assumed that soon this experience is not only desirable, but absolutely necessary.He was right.In subsequent decades, astronautics devel
But then, in 1964, to carry out such a daring project, it was necessary to seriously consider the design of the ship.As a result, the basis was taken proved itself "Voskhod-1".One of its windows replaced the outgoing gateway, and reduced the number of crew from three to two persons.The very inflatable airlock and was located outside the vehicle.After completion of the experiment, prior to planting, it should separate itself from the housing.So there was a spaceship "Voskhod-2".
was another, more serious problem.Equally dangerous experiment had to work first on animals.However, this declined, arguing that the development of a special suit for the animal - it too troublesome and costly.Besides, he would not give an answer to the main question: how people will behave in space?It was decided to carry out experiments on humans soon.
Today, the astronauts are able to leave the ship for a few hours and spend in the open space is very complex manipulations.But in the 60s, it seemed perfect fiction or even suicide.
Initially, a group of astronauts preparing for flight consisted Leonov, Gorbatko and Khrunov.Belyaev was on the brink of expulsion from the cosmonaut corps for health reasons, and only at the insistence of Gagarin it was included in a group preparing for flight.
As a result, formed two of the crew: the main - Belyayev, Leonov - and backup - Gorbatko, Khrunov.The crew of this expedition were presented special requirements.The team had to work as a unit, and the astronauts - be compatible with each other in terms of psychology.
Test results showed that Belyaev has great restraint and composure, able not to lose your head in all situations, and Leonov, on the contrary, impetuous, impulsive, but extraordinarily brave and courageous.These two men, so different in character, could perfectly paired, which is a prerequisite in order to carry out the first output of the person into space.
first three months of the astronauts engaged in the study of the structure and equipment of the new ship, followed by long-term training in conditions of weightlessness.This required the aircraft to maneuver and very experienced pilot, who could confidently perform aerobatics.During the hour-long flight the plane was able to simulate the weightlessness of a total of about 2 minutes.It was during this time the astronauts had to have time to work out all the scheduled program.
initially flew MiG Sparky, but strapped the astronauts were unable to move.It was decided to take a more spacious Tu-104LL.Inside the aircraft was set layout of the spacecraft from the airlock, this makeshift simulator and passed basic training.
today in the museum space, you can see the same suit in which Leonov realized the output of man into space.Photo of smiling astronaut wearing a helmet with the inscription "USSR" traveled around all the newspapers of the world, but no one could have imagined how much effort was worth the smile.
Especially for "Voskhod-2" have been developed special suits worn by the terrible name of "Berkut".They had further sealed envelope and placed behind the astronaut with life support system backpack.For better light reflection even changed the color of the suits instead of the traditional orange used white.The total weight of "Berkut" was about 100 kg.
All training took place in the suits, the system will ensure that poor.The air supply is made extremely weak, which means that if the slightest movement of the astronaut immediately covered with sweat from the strain.
Besides spacesuits were very uncomfortable.They are so dense that to squeeze his hand into a fist, it was required to make an effort almost 25 kilograms.To be able to do in such clothes any movement, it had to be constantly trained.The work was to wear, but the astronauts were resistant to the cherished goal - to make it possible to output a man into space.Leonov, by the way, was considered the strongest and most resilient in the group, which is largely predetermined his major role in the experiment.
In the midst of training in Moscow came a great friend of the USSR Charles de Gaulle and Khrushchev decided to show off in front of him the success of the Soviet space.He decided to show the French, as astronauts work out the output of man into space.It immediately became clear that the real flight was sent the crew, who will participate in this "representation."By order of Gagarin in this crucial moment Khrunova replaced Belyaev.According to the memoirs Khrunova, he did not understand the motives of this change for a long time kept a grudge against Gagarin for this inexplicable act.
later Gagarin Khrunov explained his position, he believed that it was necessary to give Belyaev last chance to fly into space.Young Khrunov could do it then more than once to the same Belyaev better suited Leonov from the psychological point of view.
trouble before the start
The day before the start there was a big nuisance.Due to the negligence of a soldier guard posted from the ship to check the tightness of the inflatable gate suddenly he fell and broke.Reserve was not, and therefore it was decided to use the most, where astronauts trained for a long time.This incident could have been fatal, but fortunately, nothing happened, repeatedly used the gateway sustained, and the first output of the person into space successfully held.
Access to space
about the behavior of a man in the open space, there are many theories.Detractors claimed that the astronaut to set foot outside the spacecraft immediately welded to it, will be unable to move or do go mad.It is hard to imagine what else could turn a man exit into open space.1965 could easily be the year of the grand failure of the Soviet space program.However, to confirm or refute the pessimistic theory could only practice.
In addition, at the time was not yet developed any rescue systems.The only thing that was done for astronauts - is the resolution in which case just open the door and put out his hand.
When the ship entered the preset orbit, Leonov began to prepare for the exit.Everything went according to plan, when the hour of X, an astronaut gently pushed off and floated from the airlock into space.
The worst predictions of skeptics did not materialize, and the astronaut was feeling pretty well.He fulfilled all the prescribed program, and it's time to go back to the ship.With that there were some problems.Bloated weightless suit gave Leonov enter the gateway.Then he, without consulting anyone, lowered self-pressure suit and plunged headfirst into the gateway, and not vice versa, as planned.The first output of man into space was completed, and Alexei Leonov forever inscribed his name in the history of space exploration.
«Voskhod-2" had a lot of shortcomings, and after successful completion of the flight program was an emergency.When shooting close up output gateway sensors solar-stellar orientation.When the ship was making his 16th orbit around the Earth, from the MCC received instructions to decline.But the ship continued to fly, as if nothing had happened.When he went in the 17th round, it was clear that the system of automatic orientation fails, and the crew had to switch to manual control.Flying, whose main task was the exit of man into space could end in disaster.
at the cost of enormous efforts Belyaev and Leonov regained control of the ship, but still late with the engine off almost a minute.As a result of the planned landing site is finally over and the trigger unit landed in the remote forests of Perm.
astronauts remained in the winter woods for two days long.However, one helicopter still tried to throw them warm clothes, but missed, and the parcel was lost in snowdrifts.
helicopter could not land in deep snow among the trees, and the astronauts did not have the necessary equipment or to cut down trees or to pour water, snow and ice to make a makeshift landing pad.Ultimately rescue team reached the foot of frozen astronauts and was able to bring them out of the forest thicket.
Despite all the difficulties of training and unpleasant incident during the flight, Belyaev and Leonov failed in its main task - to carry the output of man into space.The date of this event has become one of the most significant milestones in the history of the Soviet space program.