What is humanism in the understanding of the sages of antiquity and the Renaissance philosophers

humanism - a particular type of philosophical outlook, which is based on the idea of ​​the highest human values;philosopher and humanist human person - the center of the world, the measure of all things, the crown of God's creation.

humanism in philosophy begins to take shape in antiquity, its first definition we find in the works of Aristotle and Democritus.

Humanism in ancient tradition

What is humanism in the understanding of the ancient sages?The judgment of the philosophers of antiquity - is the highest level of development and prosperity of the best features and abilities.The individual must strive for self-realization, self-education;person should be harmonious, ethically and aesthetically perfect.

In the Middle Ages the idea of ​​humanism on the backburner, were overshadowed by gloomy theories of religious asceticism, mortification natural for any individual desires and needs.The main virtues were considered the following: self-restraint, humility, conviction of the original sinfulness o

f human beings.The ideas and philosophical theories of ancient times were long forgotten, the philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome were declared mistaken pagans.

Renaissance humanism

interest in the heritage of antiquity significantly increased only in the Renaissance.The impact on society of the church significantly decreased, science and art ceased to be a purely theological, were more free, neteologicheskie philosophical theories and teachings.Save, organize and study the works of philosophers and scholars of antiquity was the main task of the humanists in modern times.A must for them was the study of ancient languages ​​- Latin and Greek.

In recognition of the Renaissance philosophers, that is humanity, there was the proportion of originality and identity.Renaissance humanism peculiar and unique.At that time it became recognized the importance of the humanities;human values ​​(attention and respect for the feelings and needs of human compassion, empathy) were no less important than, for example, religious, church compliance requirements and practices.

origins of Renaissance humanism inherent in scientific works and works of art of great Italians - Dante Alighieri and Francesco Petrarca.Due to the general atmosphere of freedom, the worship of beauty, attraction to new forms of art, it was possible the existence of the great phenomenon - a brief period of the High Renaissance (1500-1530).It was at this time geniuses of the Renaissance (Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo) created the greatest works of art.

Eventually Renaissance humanism spread to the northern regions of Europe.It should be noted that the Northern Renaissance, in contrast to the Italian, it was closer to the religious tradition.The basic idea of ​​the Christian humanists - the improvement of man as the main condition of salvation.Let us analyze what humanism in understanding religious philosopher.Only by following the commandments of God, observing all the requirements of religion and holy books, a person can be cleansed, closer to the ideals of goodness, beauty, harmony.This is most clearly the idea of ​​theistic humanism manifested themselves in the works of Erasmus of Rotterdam, Willibald Pirkgeymera.

His answer to the question about what is humanism, and give modern scholars-philosophers.The tradition of Renaissance humanism still do not hand over their positions in the modern philosophy of Western Europe.Belief in the power of man, reverent admiration of omnipotence, the omnipotence of the individual, an optimistic belief in the possibility of improving society - all this makes humanity the most progressive and productive course of modern philosophy.