world around us, we perceive through two systems: the first and the second signal.
For information about the state of the organism and the external environment of the first signal system uses all human senses: touch, sight, smell, hearing and taste.A second, younger, alarm system allows to perceive the world through speech.Its development is based on and in conjunction with the first in the process of human growth and development.In this article we will look at what the first signal system, how it develops and functions.
As it happens in animals?
All animals can use only one source of information about the surrounding reality and change its state, which is the first signal system.The outside world is presented through a variety of objects with a variety of chemical and physical properties, such as color, smell, shape and others., Act as a conventional warning signals about changes in the body to which you want to adjust.Thus, a herd of deer dozing in the sun, the smell of a lurking predator abru
Thus, the higher animals first (conditioned reflex) signaling system - is an accurate reflection of the outside of the world, allowing right to respond to changes and adapt to them.All her signals relate to a specific object and are specific.Conditioned reflexes that make up the base of the elementary subject-referenced thinking animals are generated by this particular system.
first signal system of human functioning in the same way as higher animals.Separate its functioning is observed only in the newborn, in the period from birth to the age of six months, if the child is in a normal social environment.Formation and development of the second signal system is made in the process and as a result of education and social interactions between people.
types of nervous activity
Man - a complex being passed in its historical development through complex changes in anatomical and physiological and psychological structure and function.The whole complex of diverse processes taking place in his body, carried out and controlled by means of one of the main physiological systems - the nervous.
activity of this system is divided into lower and higher.For the control and management of all internal organs and systems of the human body corresponds to the so-called lower nervous activity.The interaction with objects and objects of reality by means of neuro-psychological processes and mechanisms, such as intelligence, perception, thinking, language, memory, attention, referred to as higher nervous activity (GNI).This interaction occurs through a direct effect on the receptors of various objects, such as auditory or visual, with further transfer of signals received by the nervous system processes information body - the brain.It is this kind of signaling Russian scientist Pavlov was named the first signal system.Thanks to her, made possible the birth and development of the second signal system, unique to humans and associated with an audible (speech) or visible word (written sources).
What alarm systems?
Based on the works of the famous Russian physiologist and scientist Sechenov on the reflex activity of the higher parts of the brain, Pavlov developed the theory of GNI - higher nervous activity.Under this doctrine was formulated the notion that such a warning system.They are understood as emerging in the cortex (isocortex) brain complex conditioned reflex connections as a result of receipt of various pulses from the outside world or from the systems and organs of the body.That is the work of the first signaling system is aimed at applying analytical and synthetic transactions to recognize the signals from the sensory organs of the objects of the external world.
As a result, social development and language acquisition, and there evolved the second signal system.With the growth and development of the child's mind gradually develop the ability to understand and then to reproduce the speech as a consequence of the emergence and consolidation of associative links, sounds or words spoken with sensory impressions about the objects of the external environment.
Features of the first signal system
In this signaling system as the means and methods of communication, and all other forms of behavior are based on the direct perception of the reality and the response to the coming out of it in the process of interaction between pulses.The first signal system of the person - is a concrete response reflected the impact of sensory receptors on the part of the world.
First, there is a feeling in the body of any phenomena, properties or objects perceived by the receptors of any one or more of the senses.Then feeling converted into more complex shapes - perception.Only after will be formed and developed second signal system, there is no possibility of creating a site-specific forms of abstract reflection, such as ideas and concepts.
localization signal systems
During normal operation of both signal systems are responsible centers in the cerebral hemispheres.Receiving and processing of information for the first signaling system provides the right hemisphere.As the perception and processing of information flow for the second signal system generates the left hemisphere is responsible for the development of logical thinking.The second (more than one) alarm system depends on the human structural integrity of the brain and its functioning.
relationship between signaling systems
first and second signaling systems according to Pavlov are in constant interaction and interdependent on the functions they perform.This is due to the fact that on the basis of the first appeared and developed second signaling system.Coming from the environment and from different parts of the body of the first signals are in continuous interaction with the second signal.During this interaction is the emergence of conditioned reflexes of a higher order, which create functional links between them.In connection with the development of thinking processes and social way of life of a person is more developed second signal system.
Stages of development in the process of individual mental development of a child born on time, the first signal system begins to take shape in a few days after birth.At the age of 7-10 days, the formation of the first conditioned reflexes.So, the baby makes sucking movements with his lips before being put into his mouth nipple.Conditioned reflexes to auditory stimuli can be formed at the beginning of the second month of life.
The older the child becomes, the more quickly he formed conditioned reflexes.To have monthly grudnichka appeared temporary connection, it is necessary to do a lot of repetitions of the impact unconditioned and conditioned stimuli.In two-three baby to create a temporary connection it takes only a few repetitions.
second signal system begins to take shape in children between the ages of one and a half years, when multiple naming of objects, together with his demonstration, the child begins to respond to the call.In children, it comes to the fore only in 6-7 years.
Thus, in the course of mental and physical development of the child, throughout the child and adolescent periods, there is a change of significance and priority between these signaling systems.At school age, and until the beginning of puberty, the second signal system comes to the fore.At puberty, due to significant hormonal and physiological changes in the body of teenagers in a small period of the first signal system again becomes the leader.By high school, the second signal system again takes the lead and keeps its leading position throughout life, is constantly improving and developing.
first signal system of people, despite the prevalence of adult second, is of great importance in such human activities as sports, work, education and labor.Without it, it would be impossible to work a musician and artist, actor and a professional athlete.
Despite the similarity of this system in humans and animals, in humans the first signal system - it's much more complex and sophisticated structure, as it is in constant interaction with the second harmonic.