Nikolai Fedorovich Vatutin was born in 1901, 16 December, in the village of Chepuhino (today Vatutine this village, located in the Belgorod region).He was born in a large peasant family in which, in addition to Nicholas, there were eight children.Biography Nikolai Fedorovich Vatutin will be considered in this article.
future general a child eager to learn and master them very aggressively.Nikolai Fedorovich Vatutin first graduated from the village school, which was the first disciple, and then - with honors zemstvo school in Valuiki.Nikolai Fedorovich successfully passed the entrance tests of Urazovo Commercial College, where he also worked diligently to obtain a small grant from the zemstvos.Nikolai Vatutin studied at a commercial school for 4 years.The reason is that then ceased to pay the grant, and he was forced to return to his native village.
Nicholas, returned home and began to work in the parish board.Once in the village of Soviet power was established, he, while still a t
Nikolai Vatutin in 1922 graduated from the Poltava infantry school, while participating in fights against gangs fists.In the same year he joined the Communist Party (b).While the country's rampant hunger, cholera and typhoid people died, also in 1921 there was a drought, add to the population reduction.From famine dead grandfather and father of Nicholas and his older brother, Yegor.
biography Nikolai Fedorovich Vatutin in the following years was marked by the following events.Vatutin after the Infantry School in prescribed rifle regiment commander of the squad, then - commander of a platoon.It improves the military knowledge, he graduated in 1924 from the Kiev higher combined military school.Then Nikolai Fedorovich continued his education at the Frunze Military Academy (in 1926-29 years).Vatutin after its completion is sent to the location in the city of Chernigov Infantry Division headquarters.He became chief in 1931 located in the city of Ordzhonikidze Staff Mountain Division.After the service two years later he was again sent to the Academy.Frunze, already operational department.Vatutin he graduated in 1934.But three years later - and the Military Academy of the General Staff.Military talent and hard work do the trick.Successfully promote against Nikolai Fedorovich.In 1938, as a colonel, he was appointed to the headquarters located in the Kiev Special Military District, and after a while becomes a corps commander.
the General Staff in 1940, in August, when the Chief of Staff instead Shaposhnikov became Meretskov - General of the Army, Vatutin transferred here to work the Chief of Operations.After a while, he was appointed first deputy chief of staff.K. Zhukov in his book "Memories and Reflections" on Vatutin wrote that he had a very strong sense of responsibility, he could clearly and briefly express thoughts, differed breadth of thinking and hard work.Vatutin already, Lieutenant-General, in February 1941 he was awarded the Order of Lenin.
beginning of the war
To borders of the USSR approached the war ... In the initial period of its bad actions of the troops led to personnel changes in the command.It was necessary to strengthen the capabilities of the best central front.In 1941, July 29, Zhukov, Vatutin nominated for the post of commander of the front.However, Stalin decided to make another decision.
June 30th commander of the North-Western Front Vatutin took part in the defense of the city of Novgorod, heading a task force troops.Counterstrike against the housing Manstein carried out under his leadership.As a result of these battles the Germans suffered at the approaches to Leningrad heavy losses and were pushed back by 40 kilometers.Vatutin was awarded for the organization of resistance and shown the determination and courage of the Order of the Red Banner.
"Operation Little Saturn"
In 1942, in May-July, already the deputy.Chief of Staff Vatutin did a great job as a representative Betting on the Bryansk Front.He commanded in July and October 1942, the Voronezh Front, the defenders successfully under his leadership at the Voronezh area.
Nikolai Fedorovich in October 1942 was appointed commander of the Southwestern Front, participated in the preparation, design and implementation of an important Stalingrad operation.From 19 November to 16 December this year, Nikolai Vatutin's troops together with units of Stalingrad and Don fronts (team - Eremenko and Rokossovsky respectively) conducted an operation called "Little Saturn".They surrounded the group of Paulus at Stalingrad.Soviet troops closed the November 23 near the hamlet encirclement.It turned out to be part of the 4th Panzer Army and the 6th Army (total - 22 divisions, the number of which amounted to about 330 thousand people).The troops of the Southwestern Front during the operation took prisoner 60 thousand officers and soldiers have cleared about 1250 settlements.As a result, the plans were thwarted by the German command, which wanted to release the army of Paulus.Actions during the operation also led to the destruction of the remnants of the third Romanian army and the eighth Italian and German band "Hollidt."
Operation Little Saturn
In 1942, from 16 to 31 December, was carried out another operation Srednedonskaya.As a result, it has been applied to the enemy in the Middle Don decisive defeat.It has broken the final plan to release German troops encircled at Stalingrad from the west.The originality of this operation was the implementation of a nasty blow to the flank in conjunction with a variety of front-end.The defeat at Stalingrad, the Germans turned to highly sensitive, in what was a very significant achievement, General Vatutin, commander of the Southwestern Front.Zhukov was awarded the Order of Suvorov for the Stalingrad of the first degree.The second award received Vasilevsky, the third - the Ravens, the fourth - Vatutin, the fifth - Eremenko, the sixth - Rokossovsky.Of course, in the manner of awarding the chance could not be.
Vatutin General of World War II, to the end of 1942, received the rank of colonel, and in February 1943 - General of the Army.Troops in January-February 1943 under his command carried out together with parts of the Southern Front Voroshilovgrad operation known as code-named "Jump."He completed it on 18 February.As a result, it has been cleared from the Nazis northern part of the Donbass.In addition, it managed to defeat the main forces of the first German Panzer Army.
Battle of Kursk
In March 1943, was again appointed to the post of commander of the Voronezh Front Vatutin.General World War II is now responsible for one of the main directions in the Battle of Kursk.Rokossovsky commanded the Central Front.Manstein opposed the Voronezh Front, and against the Central - Model.Units and formations in the defensive battle at the Kursk Bulge reflected the powerful blows of the Germans.They have successfully solved the problem in the course of a counter-offensive breakthrough defense in depth.
Kursk Bulge against the Voronezh Front the Germans was a strong group.Serious withstood the onslaught of the enemy Russian, however, and the Germans were great losses.Voronezh Front reinforced reserves of the two tank armies, caused by a powerful group of Germans counter-attack.Under Prokhorovka tank battle took place.With the breakthrough on the stage of the offensive Vatutin applied shock troops with tank corps, which ensured rapid advancement and rapid pursuit of the enemy.
operation called "Rumyantsev" (Belgorod-Kharkiv) began in 1943, August 3.She carried troops of the Steppe and Voronezh Fronts and was part of the Battle of Kursk.August 23 to complete the operation.It was destroyed during the Belgorod-Kharkov German group numbering 15 divisions, and released Kharkov and Belgorod.Thus were created the conditions for an important step - the release of Left-Bank Ukraine.Up to 300 km in the south-western and southern areas of the Soviet troops advanced.Vatutin was awarded the Order of Kutuzov First Class.
Battle of the Dnieper
Battle for the Dnepr began in the same year, on August 13 the troops of the Voronezh (General Vatutin), Central (Rokossovsky) and Steppe (Konev) fronts.The first phase was completed on 21 September.In the south-western direction, Soviet troops routed about 30 German divisions.Released almost Donbass and Left Bank Ukraine, and on a broad front reached the Dnieper.September 23 troops of the Central (Rokossovsky), Voronezh (Vatutin), Southwestern (Malinowski) and Steppe (Konev) Front began the next stage.During extended up to December 22 was the fighting crossed the Dnieper at several sites.Developing the offensive, the soldiers moved forward in a south-westerly direction.Soviet troops eventually caused the group of armies "South" as well as part of the "Center" army heavy defeat.They liberated Left Bank Ukraine and part of the Right Bank.
Voronezh Front in October 1943 was renamed the First Ukrainian.His troops in November of that year, held under the command of Vatutin Kiev offensive.She ended December 13th.The result - a breakthrough Defense Army Group "South".Discreetly and expeditiously General Vatutin held among the troops regrouping, the main force concentrated under Lyutezh so Bukrinsky foothold for the enemy is considered a major Soviet offensive, expected it.Thanks to this stratagem has achieved strategic surprise.With its task admirably, General Vatutin.Through this November 6 was released Kiev, as well as on the right bank of the Dnieper to create a strategic bridgehead.
blow to Hitler was the loss of Kiev.Active efforts have been made on his return.The Germans managed to fierce attacks to recapture Zhitomir.Now resented Stalin ... During the offensive of the 1st Ukrainian Front liberated the town on 31 December.On the 275 km was cut by the German defense.After this 1st Ukrainian Front went to the east, and 2nd - to the west, and in 1944, from 24 to 28 January, more than 10 German divisions were in the grip.
rate to meet the challenges of the campaign in 1944 decided that the main Soviet tank force will be headed by General Vatutin.His biography as a result of this has been noticed by several glorious pages.The decision to transfer armored forces here to talk about that 1st Ukrainian Front acted on the strategically important area.Vatutin's troops in January and February Rovno-Lutsk conducted the operation.The commander of the course applied in its central position on the powerful shot and covered the flank of the enemy troops, which allowed to get into the rear of the German group and destroy it completely.The operation was completed on February 11.Freed was in its result Shepetivka and Rivne, the Fourth Panzer Army defeated the Germans.
In January-February this year, 1st Ukrainian Front (Vatutin), in conjunction with the 2nd (General Konev) surrounded in the Korsun-Shevchenko large group of enemies.However, after the Germans were in the "bag", it was ordered to pass the destruction of the enemy's 2nd Front under Konev.Therefore, all the glory of this operation had come to him, not Vatutin.Konev as a result received the honorary title of Marshal of the Soviet Union.Complete the operation on February 17th.As a result, she was wounded and killed about 55 thousand. Germans captured - more than 8 thousand.
General Vatutin MYSTERY death
In 1944, February 29, Vatutin went to the troops on the way back from the headquarters of the 13th Army.The death of General Vatutin occurred unexpectedly.He was shot in Bandera own rear with.Milyatyn (Ostrog district), and the wounded in the left thigh.Vatutin was taken to a military hospital in Rivne, and then moved to Kiev.First wound did not seem very dangerous, but then the condition has deteriorated sharply Vatutin.So far it is not clear why it happened, how it happened, and it was not possible to save such an important person for the country, as General Vatutin.The mystery of his death is still a matter of controversy.Most doctors fought for his life, General.Amputation has not helped.General Vatutin, whose biography was discussed in this article, died on the night of April 15th, 1944 of blood poisoning.
funeral Nikolai Fedorovich Vatutin
to his mother, Vera Efremovna, it was a loss for 1944 is already the third son.She got in February, news of the death of Athanasius Vatutin from combat wounds, and then, in March, was killed at the front Fedor, her younger son.And in April, died Nikolai Vatutin.He was buried at the Mariinsky park in Kiev.Vatutin hour funeral in Moscow was given military honors - sounded a salute of 24 volleys of 24 guns.May 6, 1965 has been awarded posthumously the title "Hero of the Soviet Union," Vatutin.
His death was a tragic event for the country.General Vatutin died at 42 years old, a career on the rise, with considerable success.He did not have time to reveal to the end of their potential and achieve military valor, which was certainly worthy.
Vatutin Monument in Kiev
In 1948, January 25, in Kiev was a monument Vatutin.It is located at the entrance to the Mariinsky park in the Pechersk district of the city.Nearby is a building of the Verkhovna Rada.The authors - Belopol'skii architect and sculptor Vucetic.The sculpture is 3.65 meters, the base and the pedestal - 4.5 m.
Vatutin Monument in Kiev - presented in a full-length figure of Nikolai Vatutin in uniform.It is carved out of gray granite.Base and pedestal (in shape - a truncated pyramid) were made of black labradorite.The pedestal is bordered on the perimeter of bronze laurel garlands.At the ends of two carved relief that reproduce the stages crossing the Dnieper and the meeting with the Ukrainian people as liberators (sculptor Ulyanov).
Nikolai Vatutin House
House is in a Vatutin.Mandrova Valuisky Belgorod region.The museum has two buildings.First - this is the house where he was born Nikolai Fedorovich, and the second - built for his mother in 1944-45 troops of the First Ukrainian Front.The museum was founded in 1950 by the decision of the kolkhoz.Its first director was the sister of Nikolai Fedorovich Vatutin - Daria Feodorovna.Friends and relatives gathered his personal belongings, family photographs, household items.Thus was created the first exhibition.
in 2001 opened a new exhibition.It is timed to coincide with the centenary of the birth of Nikolai Fedorovich.The number of exhibits to date is 1275, 622 of them - is the main fund (Vatutin personal belongings, household items, books, photographs).