Morpheme - what's that?

Surely each student faced with this definition as a morpheme.This concept is quite closely related to the composition of the word, and his knowledge helps perform morphemic analysis.Let's talk about what it is.We will understand also that a morphemic analysis.

What morpheme?

morpheme - is the least significant part of the word.The first term was coined by the famous scientist Baduenom de Courtenay still in the middle of the XIX century and is used in linguistics so far.

All words consist of morphemes.They - the building blocks that make up words.Each component has has its importance and role.The following types of morphemes: mandatory and optional.Mandatory is always present in the word and is called the root.May optionally comprise as a token and not enter it.These morphemes called affixes.Let's examine each type separately.

Required morpheme

As already mentioned, mandatory morpheme in the Russian language is only one, and it is called the root.There is not a word that would have existed witho

ut this morpheme.Words without root (exception - some service parts of speech) are absent in the Russian language.It is the main

as bears the lexical meaning.For example, the token forest, the forest, the forester incorporates a single root - forest .All these words have a similar value associated with the forest.The only thing - their difference in shades.Thus, forest - space covered with trees;Forest - related to the forest;forester - a man who is guarding him.

in compound words have multiple roots, for example, in the word svetloliky two roots - light and face .Do not forget about parsing words.Basically compound words have two roots, in some cases, can occur with a large set of speech.

Optional Optional

morpheme morpheme Russian language - affixes.Among them are the following:

  • prefixes or prefixes;
  • a suffix or suffixes;
  • flexion or termination;
  • interfiksy.

They may be present in the word or not.In addition, each new optional morpheme gives it a new meaning.

first two types of morphemes convey lexical and grammatical meaning.FLEX is expressed only grammatical meaning of the word.Even zero, that is, having no sound expressions ending shows how grammatical meaning is token.

Prefix and postfix

Let us to begin with those morpheme, which give new lexical and grammatical nuances.

prefixes are always located at the beginning of the word and change its value.In Russian, there are about 70 prefixes.Most of them formed by prepositions.The school is often referred to as set-top boxes.Each console has its own value and changes the tone of speech.For example, go - move somewhere; drive - closer to something.

This changes the lexical meaning of the word, but part of speech to which it belongs, remains unchanged.

Postfix always located between the root and the inflection (if it is a word).They serve not only to form a new value, but also in order to form a new part of speech.So, using the suffix -n- from the noun the adjective forest rejoiced forest .

Some suffixes constitute a new shade of meaning.So, there are diminutive suffixes, such as: -ushk- , -chik- , -ochk- and others.With the help of these tokens are formed with a new shade of meaning.For example: ear - ear , finger - finger, basket - basket .

The word may be a few prefixes and suffixes.It all depends on the structure of the token and its value.Therefore, making the analysis of morphemes words, should pay special attention to this.


These morphemes are used to link multiple roots in compound words.For example, the word idler consists of two words - forehead and shook .They are linked interfiksom -o- .Interfiksy not always taught in school, often they talk about them only in high school, and then briefly.

word stems

Learning that morpheme - a significant portion of the token, we should also remember one more important part - basis.This invariable part of the word, that is part of it without end.The base contains the basic lexical meaning and can only consist of one root or root and affix (affixes).The verb base may be interrupted by the end, if there is a postfix Xia or -s .For example, in the word bought basis will be interrupted and the end look like buy-and-camping .


data morpheme used to express grammatical meaning.The curriculum they are called terminals.Using them is determined by the grammatical meaning.Nouns is gender, number and case.FLEX are present in all parts of speech, except immutable, such as an adverb, conjunction, preposition.In these parts of speech they do not stand out.In all other parts of speech in the absence of the end of it it is taken as zero.

For example, in the word forest end will zero, the word forest end will s .At the same time the end of the word to express what this noun refers to the plural, and is in the nominative case.

Morphemic parsing words

So, we found that the morpheme - is the least significant part of the token.Now let's talk about the morpheme analysis.In order to properly make the morphemic analysis, you must adhere to the following rules.

1. First analyzed token discharged from the proposal or the text in the form in which it is present there.

2. Determine the part of speech and then whether to change it.If yes, proceed to Step 3, if not - to step 4.

3. Find the ending.To this end, on leave or bow case, number.The variable part will end.

4. Select the foundation.The base - all without the end of the word.

5. Find the root.To do this, we select the root word of the different parts of speech.

6. Select the console, facing the roots.

7. Select suffixes.To do this, select the words with similar suffixes, but different roots.Remember that some words can have multiple prefixes and suffixes.For example, the word most unpleasant has two consoles: pre-not-nice .A word dreamer three suffix: Dream-a-tor-ence .

That's the whole analysis of the composition.

example morphemic parsing

Let's look at one word, so you can see the principle of the morphemic analysis and memorize the sequence of actions.Take action when the proposal: "Have not seen the old man."

1. Have written word «old man» .

2. declined: old man, old man - substantive changes.

3. declined again: old man, old man, old men , the end of the old man's words - a.

4. Drop rest.Basis - old .

5. We select the same root token: old age, aging - old root.

6. We do not have anything in front of the root, so prefix in the word no.

7. chose his words with the suffix -ik-, if any. Man, nose - suffix - IR.

As you can see, nothing complicated in the analysis of speech there.The main thing is to strictly follow the algorithm, so as not to lose and everything correctly identify and understand what morpheme.Examples of different morphemes should also learn how to choose.

If you doubt the correctness of the analysis, you can always find the morphemic dictionary of Russian language and view it from any morpheme is a particular word, exactly how it is formed.You can use the dictionary under the editorship of Potikha ZA or Tikhonov AN

So, we learned that the morpheme - is the least significant part of the word, have determined what are the morpheme, talked about each of them.Also we found out how to do morphemic analysis of words and considered an example of this parse.Reminded of dictionaries that can help you check the correct parsing words.Hopefully, the article was useful to you.