St. Augustine (Blessed - in the Orthodox tradition and teacher Grace - in the Catholic) - an outstanding philosopher, one of the founders of the Christian theology.He was born in 354, in a family of Numidia pagan Roman citizen, but his mother Monica was a Christian.As the family was quite well-off, 17-year-old Aurelius sent to study rhetoric at Carthage.There's an apologist for the future of the new religion in love with a woman with whom he lived for 13 long years.She was the mother of his son - Adeodata.However, due to differences in social origin Augustine did not marry her.
While studying rhetoric, Augustine became interested in philosophy.He accepted Manichaeism, but soon moved away from the teachings of Mani.Spiritual quest and the influence of his mother brought him to the bosom of the Christian faith.Looking for a job young rhetorician leaves African provinces of the Roman Empire in 384 and is a teaching of oratory in Mediolanum (now Milan).Settling near the villa Kassitsiakum philosopher crea
After Easter 387 Augustine was baptized by Saint Ambrose in Mediolanum, began the second period of creativity of the Christian apologist.He sold his possessions, gave away almost everything to the poor and went with his mother in Africa.But in Ostia, Monica died.Arriving in his hometown Tagaste, philosopher founded the religious community of monks.Therefore, it is considered the founder of the monastic order of Augustinians.In this period it was written works devoted to religious and ecclesiastical and exegetical issues ("The Book of Genesis"), the interpretation of the Epistles of the Apostle Paul, a treatise against the Donatists.Then there was a glorified theologian "Confessions."
most fruitful called third period (410-430), when the scientist was ordained presbyter at first, and later bishop of Hippo (city of the Roman Empire in North Africa).It was then that the philosophy of St. Augustine has reached its highest development.A theologian like looking back on his earlier convictions, and critically evaluates them ("revision").Questions Christology (human or divine nature of Christ) are reflected in the works "On the Trinity" and the cycle of treatises against Pelagius.The most significant work of the theologian is considered work «De civitate Dei» - «City of God."
22 books in this work for the first time the theologian tries to analyze the whole historical process, to understand the meaning and purpose of human society and the way of its development.Therefore Augustine considered the founder of the philosophy of history.Social life is also related to the Kingdom of God, as a man (creation) with the Creator.However, due to the fall of Adam, mankind in the mass separated from God, but it can come back to Him for the grace of the Lord - says St. Augustine.The philosophy of the theologian considers the development of society as a progressive movement from the vale of tears, which were banished Adam and Eve, through the City of Earth (the state) to the Castle of Heaven (where there is an eternity, and moral perfection).
Thus, St. Augustine reviews the history in terms of linear time.This is a segment that has duration, for Eternity no.God directs history - all that neither happens, included in the plans and intentions of the Creator.The state in this sense, acts as a necessary stage of development.Philosopher based on the study of Holy Scripture identifies seven epochs of social development: the first five - is the story of the Jewish people before the birth of Christ.Who takes the sixth era, which should be completed by the Last Judgment, and then begin as described in the Book of Revelation the seventh stage, when all the righteous will dwell forever in Heaven Jerusalem.Human society in its development moves from a secular state into a theocratic controlled by the princes of the Church.This doctrine of Augustine has been taken as a basis for the Roman Catholic Church in the struggle for investiture.