Discharges of adjectives: general concept and features of value changes and the use of

adjective in Russian - it's part of speech, whose main function - non-process identification tag object (as opposed to the sacrament, a sign indicating the subject of the action).Adjectives can change on cases and numbers, and in the singular - and even genera and classified by special lexical and grammatical groups - discharge.Thus, the level of adjectives - the three big groups, unite words that are similar in meaning and method of notation attribute of the object.Adjectives belonging to each of the categories, have their own characteristics and changes in consumption.We'll talk about this in more detail below, and below is a summary table.

discharges adjectives



degree of comparison

Short form

combination with the adverb "very┬╗



feature of an object by its quality, that is a sign may manifest itself in one way or another




Good, good, easy, beautiful, poor, old


feature of an object, is the ratio of the place, time, material, and so on. e., thethere is a constant, unchanging




evening (hours), iron (rod), milk (soup), Continental (climate)


feature of an object as a symbol of belonging to anything or anyone




Wolf (skin), maiden (honor), grandparents (jacket)

Qualitative adjectives particular value changes and use

qualitative adjectives - a lexical and grammatical category, which combines the words for the quality of the object, that is a sign, which is able to manifest itself in one way or anotherdegree, to a greater or lesser degree, for example: expensive doll, pretty girl, poor artist, talented actor .Qualitative adjectives in addition to changes on cases, birth numbers and are able to form a more concise form, the degree of comparison and combined with the adverb "very".Other bits of adjectives (possessive and relative) do not have these characteristics.

Education short forms

Short form is formed by complete and it has a close semantic link: close - too small, too narrow, too narrow;beautiful - beautiful, beautiful, beautiful;harmful - harmful, harmful, harmful .There are a number of adjectives that sometime in the Russian language and have a full and concise form, but today are used only in a brief example: glad Telegram much should and others.

remarkable that, historically, it is the short form of the adjective is considered to be the basic, original, and in the early stages of language development overall shape formed by brief.Today, during the formation of the short form may be a loss or alternating vowels: green - green, greener, green;sharp - sharp, cutting, cutting .Adjectives briefly vary in numbers and birth (in the singular), but not lean.The proposal, as a rule, they function as a predicate: This dress was very beautiful Countess.

Education degrees of comparison

comparatives and superlatives - an illustration of how clearly and fully expressed in the subject of this quality: Dad good - better - best;Artist talented - talented friend - talented .Recall that the other digits represent adjectives as a permanent feature of an object is not capable of gradation.

Degrees of comparison can be generated as a synthetic - suffix ( expensive - more expensive, beautiful - beautiful ), and analytically - with the help of special words:

  • comparative - over, at least + the initial form of the adjective ( morecomplicated, less interesting );
  • excellent - the most, the least, the most elementary form of the adjective + ( the most attractive, the most cheerful ), or all, of + simple comparative degree adjective ( sings the best, the most expensive is valued ).

Word of the parts of speech in a synthetic comparative form are not changed on cases, the number of leave and do not agree with a noun, an indication that they represent.Their syntactic function in the sentence - it is part of a compound nominal predicate ( old friend - better than two new ).

For most qualitative adjectives simple and complex forms of degrees of comparison can exist in parallel, but there are words in the modern language does not form a simple comparative degree: massive, early, timid and others.

Another nuance, which should pay attention - is the formation of the degrees of comparison of different substrates such as: good - better than bad - worse, small - less .

from adjectives in comparative and superlative words to be distinguished, the subjective assessment of symptoms that indicate no degree of manifestation of this trait in a particular situation and an assessment of this feature speaker: tiny pen, pretty face, legs tremendous .Should not be included in this group of adjectives with suffixes - Ovate - / - evat -: these words do not refer to the subjective assessment of the characteristic, and the incompleteness of the objective of its manifestations, such as: whitish haze, greenish tint .

relative adjectives

If we compare the level of nouns and adjectives, it is possible to carry out the following parallel: real nouns denote a substance, material, and relative adjectives - a sign of respect to this substance, material: tree- wood, rice - the rice, ice - the ice .However, the indication referred to this group of adjectives may refer not only to the material, but the place, time and so on. E., For example: evening, old, foreign, domestic, coastal .This characteristic is manifested constantly and can not be expressed in a greater or lesser extent, however fail to form relative adjectives degree comparison.

Possessive adjectives

This category combines adjectives answer the question whose? and designating the subject belongs to someone or something: father's friend, Wolf Fang, fleece, cap Dedov .

discharges adjectives: the use of words in a figurative sense

To improve the expressiveness of speech, in some cases, the adjectives of a single digit can be used in the meaning of words from another digit, for example: steel mug - nerves of steel, wolf tracks - wolfish glancegold chain - golden hands .Therefore discharge adjective defined not only on the general formal parameters, but with special attention to context.