Allowance for doubtful accounts: the wiring.

assets and liabilities of the organization should be adjusted to reflect the estimated values.The receivables such indicator is the provision for doubtful debts - the sum of the balance sheet is shown net of RS created savings.This avoids the overvaluation of assets.Since 2011, the formation of a reserve for doubtful debts - the duty of the company (in accordance with paragraph. 70 AR RF № 34n).Although the Tax Code spelled out the operation as the right companies.But when you consider that this amount should be included in tax expense, many companies have the right to build up reserves.For information on how to implement it properly, which wiring should be formed and how the operation is displayed in the "Accountancy 1C", you will learn from this article.

Provisions in BU

"Accounting" and "tax" the accumulated amount of doubtful and bad debts are very different, so the form they need separately for different purposes. The BU procedure for calculating the company establishes its own. The AR RF state

d that the amount of fundsshall be calculated by one of the following methods:

- separately for each debt, the company determines the amount of RS, which will not be returned and include it in the reserve;

- based on information from previous periods, calculated as the proportion of the unpaid amount for the previous few years,;

- for each amount in proportion to the period of delay. The same method is applied to the OU.

equivocal not:

  • ERA for the obligations of providers who received the advance payment, as well as undelivered goods within the time specified in the contract.
  • Debt fines for non-compliance with terms of the contract.
  • Debt loan agreements and assignment of the claim.

Confirm selection

selected option should be approved in the accounting policies.If management has decided to use the method of peer review, it should be clearly defined criteria for classifying debt reserves.The proportional method to install percentages.Selecting the formation of the reserve is important to consider the purpose of his creation.The higher the amount, the greater the rate of net assets.For "beautiful" statements, he should be minimal.And legal requirements are met, and investors will not be affected.The BU creation of a reserve for doubtful accounts is recorded at MF.63 analytical data are written separately for each debtor.Provision displayed in "Other expenses" (cq. 91-2).

example forming a reserve in CU

Company "X" has shipped LLC "U" products 120 m. Rubles.(VAT 18, 24 tons rubles.) 08.12.2013.Grace period of 10 calendar days has been broken.Accounting policy of "X" provided the assignment amounts to the hopeless in full.Management has decided to include 100% of the debt in the allowance for doubtful accounts.Postings in this case will be as follows:

date

DT

KR

amount t. Rub.

Operation

31.08.13

91-2

63 / OOO "Do»

120

established reserves

Adjustment.10/15/13 buyer agreed to pay part of the debt at a rate of 50 t. Rub.This operation should be reflected in BU for MF.63 "Allowance for doubtful accounts".Postings:

date

DT

KR

amount t. Rub.

Operation

31.10.13

63 / OOO "Do»

91-1

50

The decrease in the provision

OnDZ end of the year in the balance sheet must be reduced by the amount of doubtful debts 120 - 50 = 70 tons rubles.

2. For example, in June 2014 of "U" was liquidated.As previously included the amount of their debt to the fund, then it will be debited from the same account 63 "Reserve for doubtful debts".Postings:

date

DT

KR

amount t. Rub.

Operation

31.06.14

63 / OOO "Do»

62

70

write off bad DZ

3. UnderAR RF №34, if before the end of the period following the creation of the reserve, its value has not been fully utilized, the remainder shall be included in the financial result of the current period.In this example, if the balance is not written off until 12/31/14, it should be allocated to other costs (cq. 91-1).But according to the same position, at the end of the year should again be a provision for doubtful debts.The postings are similar to those discussed above.Because of the ambiguity of the requirements, experts recommend not to write off the debt in full, and adjust in one direction or another.

Provision for doubtful debts in the OU

This settlement procedure clearly stated in Article 266 of the Tax Code.It indicated that the taxpayer may establish / pursue charges on any debt.The exception - the interest on loans.The same article states that the allowance for doubtful accounts is possible only on the basis of the inventory at the end of the DMZ period.This operation must be carried out no earlier than the obligation to pay taxes.The accounting policies need to reflect the establishment or non-establishment allowance.It must be done before the start of the year.Make any changes in the current period is impossible.

purpose of inventory in this case is to determine the timing of the delay of payment of the debt.Based on these calculations, the company determines the amount of delay, and then assigns it to the bad (if the debtor has been eliminated), or questionable.In the first case, the debt should be written off due to the allowance, and the second - is included in it.Use the fund only to cover the cost of bad debts.

These payments relate to non-operating expenses, reducing the basis for calculating the enterprise income tax (NPP), that is, to carry out such operations can only payers NPP.The amount of contributions is determined by each debt:

  • & lt;90 days overdue - 100%;
  • 45-90 days - 50%;
  • & gt;45 days - 0%.

In this case, if the amount of the debt is fully in reserve, then on must not be more than 10% of the revenue of the current period.

Calculation example

Company "X" formation of reserves established in 2014.Fees are paid by SPE on a quarterly basis, respectively, the provision is adjusted at the same time.

1. Inventory of allowance for doubtful accounts 03/31/14 showed that four of debtors overdue DMZ.The proceeds of the enterprise amounts to 3 million rubles.The amount of the provision is calculated as follows:

Client

of delay days.

amount of debt, that is. Rub.

Amounts t. Rub.

1

105

200

200 (200 * 100%)

2

85

100

50(100 * 50%)

3

50

300

150 (300 * 50%)

4

10

400

0 (400 * 0%)

Total allowance: 200 + 50 + 150 = 400 m. rubles.

Tax limitation: 3000 * 0.1 = 300 m. Rubles.

sum formed reserve: 300 m. Rubles.

2. Adjustment.In the second quarter, third debtor has paid off with a supplier, and the first eliminated.New dubious sums does not appear, therefore, these operations should be displayed in the accounts balance.

The OU hopeless DZ written off in full.If it exceeds the amount accumulated in the fund, it should be classified as non-operating expenses.Thus, the calculation of allowance for doubtful accounts in the second quarter should look like this:

Client

of delay days.

amount of debt, that is. Rub.

Amounts t. Rub.

2

175

100

100 (100 * 100%)

4

100

400

400(400 * 100%)

Total reserve: 100+ 400 = 500 m. rubles.

Tax limitation: 6000 * 0.1 = 600 m. Rubles.

sum payments of 500 m. Rubles.

From the first quarter of the remaining 100 m. Rubles.unused reserves.Accordingly, it is adjusted upward, and 400 thousand. Should be classified as non-operating expenses.

Transferring debt

According to Art.266 of the Tax Code, is not fully written-off amount of the debt in the current period may be transferred to the next.The newly created reserve should be adjusted on the balance if it is less, the difference relates to the non-operating income;if more - to the costs.

As a result, the correction is as follows.If the next year a decision on the formation of the reserve, the amount transferred.If not, then the rest should be included in non-operating income.

Standard accounting entries

DT

KR

business transaction

91-2

subaccount "Other expenses»

63

Provision.

63

60, 62, 76

cancel the debts previously recognized dubious (at the end of the period of limitation, according to the court, after the liquidation, the bankruptcy of a debtor).The amount shown in the wiring should be duplicated on the off-balance cq.007 and stay there for the next 5 years.If the debtor's financial situation will improve, perhaps, will write off the debt.

76

68

Showed VAT on written off DMZ.

63

91-1

merged unused amounts of reserves to the profit of the current period that follows a period of creation.

51/63

62/91

full repayment of debt.

91

62

assignment of the amount exceeding the balance of income.If the reserve is not created, the hopeless and other debt should be included in the expenses of the organization.

51

91

debtor return the debt in full or in part.The same amount of loan you want to show off-balance sheet accounts 007.

Difference between OU and BU

As mentioned above, taxpayers who decide to create reserves OU and BU, will inevitably face in the difference in the data.This is due to the following reasons:

1. The size of the provision for doubtful debts included in the BU only the amount for unpaid implemented GP.Debt sold for the OS and other assets not included.

2. On-hand accounts of the size of the gross amount of debt shown by management.In NK the default more than 90 days in the amount charged to the full.

3. The BU unused balance should be attributed to financial result of the organization.In NC, it can be transferred to the next period (year).

entity shall establish the register, calculate and keep it records an allowance for doubtful debts.The inventory of the reporting period should be confirmed in the relevant act (number INV-17) Addendum Chapter:

- the date of occurrence of debt (3 groups of NC);

- the percentage of contributions (0 or 100).

Accountant should monitor the transition doubtful debts in the hopeless, and the remaining amount to carry or include in its financial results.

Display operations "Accountancy 1C"

typical configuration settings allow you to track the amount of arrears separately for each client.But you need to install the checkboxes.In the "Settings of account" tab "Settlements with contractors" should specify the time period after which begins the countdown of the delay period.However, this rule will apply if in the accounting policies under the 'payments to contractors "set checkbox" create reserves in the OU and / or BU. "If both checkboxes, then inevitably be differences in the figures.Reasons for its occurrence has been specified above.If

term debt more than 45 days, during the closing months will be accrued in the amount of 50% of the total amount of the DT 62 and DT 76.06.If a period longer than 90 days - 100%.For the delay in the amount of foreign currency reserves will have to form the hand.Check the correctness of the calculations in the database of the same name can help.

Next, consider the typical accounting entries, which are formed in the base.

  • If the client used the old configuration in which the analyst was not carried out for each document shipment, after the configuration updates you need to create a new accounting policy to allocate the total amount of the provision for documents shipments via "Operation (CU and OU)."
  • Dr 91.02 Km 63 - wiring is created automatically on the last day of the month.
  • reserve is formed for each client.The program analyzes the balance of DT 62 and 76.06.If a customer under one contract including advances, and different debt more than 45 days, the allowance will still be charged.If this amount is different from the OU, it will automatically take into account the difference.
  • AT 63 KT 91.01 - Harness recovery allowance, which is automatically generated at the end of the month.The amount is reduced if the customer paid for the goods.
  • AT 63 KT 91.01;- Transfer of debt.
  • AT 63 Km 62 (76.06) - write-off of the DMZ.This wiring is formed document "Adjustment of duty" with a view "written off."It should specify the "Reserve for doubtful debts" through 63, and specify the subkonto.

If the company keeps records in the OU and BU, it is necessary to separately change the amount.To do this in the "Adjustment of duty" must be activated checkbox "Manual adjustment".Then, in the wiring AT 63 KT 62.01 specify the amount of the reserve and the remainder attributed to the permanent and temporary differences.The program correctly calculates the SPE, if the following condition: BU = OH + AT + BP.

rest of the debt not covered by a reserve in the OU should be treated on MF.91.02 "Write-off of RS (RS)." That is, the debit and credit arises negative permanent and temporary differences.

The amount of debt written off, for which has been more than three years, has yet to 5 years the number of off-balance account 007. But withinthis time the client back at least part of the money, this operation reflects the following posting: Debit 50 (51) 91.02 Km. If the money has not returned, the account is closed "operation BU (OU)" for the full amount.

Summary

company at the end of the reporting period should create reserves for doubtful accounts, ie those amounts which are unlikely to return.Methods of calculating such amounts in the OU and BU are different.If management decides to display the sum, not only in reporting but also in accounting policies, corrections will have to spend in the database manually.It is important to understand the purpose for which the reserve is formed.The higher the amount of bad debt, the greater the ratio of net assets.For "beautiful" reporting, which is served in the bank, it is not always good.