Leo Tolstoy ended in 1867, work on his novel "War and Peace".Events in 1805 and 1812's, as well as military leaders who took part in the opposition of France and Russia are the main theme of the work.
Like every peace-loving person, Tolstoy condemned the armed conflict.He was arguing with those who are in the hostilities, "the beauty of horror."The author speaks in the description of the event in 1805 as a writer and pacifist.However, talking about the War of 1812, Leo moves already in the position of patriotism.
Image Napoleon and Kutuzov
created in the novel images of Napoleon and Kutuzov - vivid expression of the principles used in the image Tolstoy figures of history.Not in all the characters coincide with the real prototypes.Tolstoy did not try to to draw significant documentary portraits of these figures, creating the novel "War and Peace".Napoleon, Kutuzov, and other characters act primarily as carriers of ideas.Omitted in the works of many well-known facts.Exaggerated some qualities of
French Emperor is the antithesis of Kutuzov.If Kutuzov can be considered a positive hero of the time, the image of Tolstoy's Napoleon is the main anti-hero in the work "War and Peace".
Portrait of Napoleon
Tolstoy emphasizes the limitations and self-confidence of the commander, which is evident in all his words, gestures and actions.Portrait of Napoleon ironic.He has a "short", "stouter" figure "fat thighs" fussy, swift gait, "plump white neck," "round belly", "thick shoulders."Such is the image of Napoleon's novel "War and Peace".Describing the morning toilet in front of the French emperor Battle of Borodino, Leo revelatory character portrait characteristics of the product initially, increases.The Emperor "groomed body", "overgrown with fatty breasts," "yellow" and "puffy" face.These details show that Napoleon Bonaparte ("War and Peace") was a man far removed from working life and alien to the national roots.The leader of the French shows narcissistic egomaniac who thinks that he will obey the whole universe.For him, people do not represent any interest.
behavior of Napoleon, his manner of speaking
image of Napoleon's novel "War and Peace" is revealed not only a description of his appearance.His manner of speaking and behavior also show through narcissism and limited.He is convinced of his own genius and greatness.Well - what came to mind, and not what is actually good, as noted by Tolstoy.In the novel, each occurrence of this character is accompanied by the author's ruthless commentary.For example, in the third volume (the first part of the sixth chapter) Tolstoy wrote that this man could see that he was only interested in what was happening in his soul.
In the work "War and Peace" marked characteristic of Napoleon as the following details.With fine irony, which sometimes turns into sarcasm, exposes the writer claims to world domination of Bonaparte, as well as his acting, incessant pose for history.All the time, the French emperor played in his words and behavior was nothing natural and simple.This is shown very impressively Tolstoy in the scene when he admired at Borodino portrait son.In her way of Napoleon's novel "War and Peace" takes on some very important details.We describe this scene briefly.
episode with a portrait of the son of Napoleon
Napoleon approached the painting, feeling that what he will say and do now, "there is a story."Portrait portrayed the son of the emperor, who played in the cup and ball globe.This expresses the greatness of the leader of the French, however, Napoleon wanted to show the "fatherly tenderness."Of course, it was pure acting.Napoleon is not expressed here are no sincere feelings, he just litsedeystvoval, posed for history.This scene shows the arrogance of a man who believed that the whole of Russia will be conquered with the conquest of Moscow and carried out in such a way his plans world domination.
Napoleon - the actor and the player
And in a number of further episodes description of Napoleon ("War and Peace") indicates that this is an actor and player.He says, on the eve of the Battle of Borodino, that chess has delivered tomorrow will begin the game.On the day of the battle, Tolstoy notes after gun shots: "The game started."Further, the writer shows that it was worth tens of thousands of lives.Prince Andrew thinks that the war - it is not a game but a cruel necessity.A fundamentally different approach to it was to the thought of one of the protagonists of the work "War and Peace".The image of Napoleon's shaded by this remark.Prince Andrew expressed the opinion of the peace of the people, who was forced in exceptional circumstances take up arms, because the threat of enslavement looming over their homeland.
comic effect produced by the French emperor
It did not matter to Napoleon that was beyond him, as it seemed to him that everything in the world depended only on his will.This remark gives Tolstoy in an episode of his meeting with Balashev ("War and Peace").The image of Napoleon in it updated with new details.Tolstoy emphasizes the contrast between the pettiness of the emperor and his high self-esteem.Comic conflict arising at the same time - the best proof of the emptiness and impotence of this historical figure who pretends to be a majestic and strong.
spiritual world is Napoleon
in understanding the world of Tolstoy's spiritual leader the French - is "artificial world" inhabited by "ghosts of the greatness" (Volume Three, Part Two, Chapter 38).In fact, Napoleon is living proof of an old truth that "the king is the servant of history" (Volume Three, Part One, Section 1).Considering that he takes his own will, this historical figure of just playing "heavy", "sad" and "cruel", "inhuman role", which he intended.As soon as he could bear it if this man were not darkened conscience and mind (including the third, part two, chapter 38).The writer sees the aberration of the commander in chief that he deliberately raised a spiritual callousness, which is taken as the true greatness and courage.
For example, in the third volume (Part II, Chapter 38) states that he liked to treat the wounded and dead, thus testing their mental strength (as Napoleon himself thought).In the episode, when the river Neman crossed the squadron of Polish lancers, and the adjutant in his eyes let himself be paid to the devotion of the Poles the attention of the emperor, Napoleon called Berthier to him and began to walk with him along the shore, giving to orders and dissatisfied occasionally glancing at the drowning Uhlans, who entertainedhis attention.For him, death - and tiresome common sight.Napoleon took for granted selfless devotion of their own soldiers.
Napoleon - deeply unhappy man
Tolstoy emphasizes that this man was deeply unhappy but not noticed it only because of the absence of at least some moral sense."Great," Napoleon, "European Hero" morally blind.He can not understand no beauty, neither good nor truth, nor the value of their own actions, which, as noted by Leo Tolstoy, were "opposed to goodness and truth", "far from all human."Napoleon could not understand the significance of his actions (including the third, part two, chapter 38).To come to the truth and goodness, in the opinion of the writer, it can only be refused on the alleged greatness of his personality.However, for this "heroic" act is not capable of Napoleon.
Napoleon responsibility for what he did to them
Despite the fact that he is doomed to play a negative role in the history, Tolstoy does not diminish the moral responsibility of this person for all their deeds to them.He writes that Napoleon intended to "free", "sad" the role of executioner of many nations, nevertheless assured themselves that their benefit was the purpose of his actions and that he could manage and lead the destinies of many people to do byhis power of beneficence.Napoleon imagined that the war with Russia took place in his will, his heart did not hit horror accomplished (Volume Three, Part Two, Chapter 38).
Napoleonic qualities of heroes works
In other heroes of the Napoleonic qualities Tolstoy relates to the lack of a sense of moral character (for example, Helen), or with their tragic errors.So, as a young man addicted to the ideas of the French emperor Pierre Pierre remained in Moscow to kill him and become that "redeemer of mankind."In the early stages of the spiritual life Bolkonsky dreamed to rise above the others, even if you want to donate for this family and family.In the image of Leo Tolstoy Napoleonism - a dangerous disease that separates people.It forces them to wander blindly on the spiritual "off-road".
Image Napoleon and Kutuzov historians
Tolstoy notes that historians have praised Napoleon, thinking that he was a great general, and Kutuzov accused of being too passive and military failures.In fact, the French emperor in 1812 developed a storm of activity.He bustled about, gave orders that he and others seemed brilliant.In short, this man behaved as follows "great commander".The image at the same Kutuzov Tolstoy's not consistent with the concept of genius, taken at the time.Consciously writer exaggerates his decrepitude.So, Kutuzov during the military council not to sleep in order to show "contempt for the disposition", but simply because he wanted to sleep (Volume One, Part Three, Chapter 12).This commander in chief does not give orders.It only endorses what it considers reasonable, and rejected all unreasonable.Kutuzov does not seek battles, doing nothing.It Kutuzov on the council at Fili, maintaining outward calm, decides to leave Moscow, which cost him great anguish.
What determines the true scale of the individual, according to Tolstoy?
almost all the battles won by Napoleon, Kutuzov also lost almost everything.The failure suffered by the Russian army and the Red Berezina.However, it was she who ultimately won the war under the command of the army, "a military genius."Tolstoy emphasizes that historians dedicated to Napoleon, believe that it was just a great man, a hero.According to them, for a person of this magnitude can not be bad and good.The image of Napoleon in the literature are often presented from this angle.Beyond moral criteria, according to various authors, are the actions of a great man.These historians and writers, even shameful flight from the army of the French emperor is estimated as an act of sublime.According to Leo Tolstoy, the real scale of the individual is not measured by "false formulas" various historians.Great historical lie is the greatness of a man like Napoleon ("War and Peace").Quotes from the works given us prove it.Tolstoy found true greatness in Kutuzov Mikhail Illarionovich, modest worker stories.