In the world there is hardly the same vast space with a flat topography, as the West Siberian Plain.Minerals occurring in this area, opened in 1960.Since then, this natural larder is particularly valuable for our state.
age of the rocks of the West Siberian Plain says about the presence of a huge number of resources.On the most northern fields development requires additional time and effort.Today, due to the vast area of swamps on such areas as the West Siberian Plain, minerals extracted at the cost of great effort.
West Siberian Plain is located within the boundaries of Epihercynian plate.I placed it on the Asian mainland and occupies a part of almost all of Western Siberia starting from the Ural Mountains and ending the Central Siberian Plateau.
On this plain located regions of Russia and Kazakhstan.The total area of this region for more than three million kilometers.The distance from north to south is two and a half thousand, and from east to west - a nineteen hundred kilometers.
Description of the West Siberian Plain
The area is a surface with a slightly rugged diluted minor fluctuations relative heights.All this leads to a clear zonation of the landscape.
Description of the West Siberian Plain gives an idea of typical natural complexes of the area.On the northern part of the territory dominated by the tundra, and in the south stretches the steppe.Since the plain poorly drained, occupies a considerable part of marshland and swamp forests.The total area of these facilities is more than one hundred and twenty eight million hectares.Due to geographic features of the climate is variable.
structure of the West Siberian Plain heterogeneous.At great depth are Paleozoic rocks, which are covered by the Meso-Cenozoic deposits.Mesozoic suites are sea and continental deposits of organic matter.
structure of the West Siberian Plain indicates repeatedly changing climate conditions and rainfall regime of accumulation on this plate.This was facilitated by its omission in the early Mesozoic period.
gray clay, mudstone, glauconite sandstones represent Paleogene deposits.Their accumulation occurred at the bottom of the Paleogene sea, which, in turn, joined the Arctic basin with the seas of Central Asia by reducing the Turgai Straits.Later, in the middle of the Oligocene, this sea has left the Western Siberia.In this connection the upper Paleocene deposits are sandy and clayey continental facies.
colossal change in the nature of sediment accumulations occur in the Neogene.Formed rock that rises to the south side of the plain and consists of continental sediments of rivers and lakes.Their formation occurred in a small subdivision plain that covers subtropical vegetation, then broad-leaved deciduous forest.In some places it was possible to meet the savannah area, populated giraffes, hipparions, camels.
The formation of minerals
placement West Siberian Plain presupposes the existence of the folded basement of Paleozoic [deposits.These deposits cover the case of loose marine and continental Mesozoic-Cenozoic rocks (clay, sandstone, and the like).This gives reason to suppose that in some places the age of the rocks of the West Siberian Plain reaches one billion years or more.
a result of the omission of the plate in the shallow lakes there was an accumulation of organic matter, which subsequently proved to be conserved under the sedimentary rocks.As a result of pressure and exposure to hot temperatures formation of the minerals.The resulting materials were moved to the side with the least pressure.As a result of these processes of oil flowed from deep in the raised position, and gas connections have risen around the edges of pools of deposits.Over places the highest elevations basin is a sedimentary rock - clay.
Thanks to the work of geologists in that territory, as the West Siberian Plain, minerals discovered in the area, became a powerful base for the development of Western Siberia.It concluded deposit resources such as natural gas, iron ore, lignite, oil.
for the development of wells in Western Siberia is extracting large quantities of oil.Soft sediments easy to drill.One of the richest and most high-quality oil field is the West Siberian Plain.Minerals mined here for over fifty years.The largest pool is the West Siberian oil and gas.Within the boundaries of the Khanty-Mansiysk syncline and Krasnoselskaya Salym and Surgut districts in the formation Bazhenov suite located the largest in our country reserves of shale oil.They are mined at a depth of two kilometers.
Cuff loose sediments enters the horizon of underground fresh and salt water.Also, there are hot springs whose temperature ranges from one hundred to one hundred and fifty degrees.
West Siberian Plain: minerals (Table)
|Sokolovsko- Sarbaisky, Kacharsky pools||iron ore|
|North Sosva, Yeneseisko-Chulymsky and Ob-Irtysh basin||lignite|
|Aiat field||nickel, coal, chromite, bauxite|
|Lisavskoe||cobalt mine, building materials, nickel, coal|
|Salt lakes in the southWestern Siberia||sodium chloride and Glauber's salt|
|Yakut deposits||diamond pipes|
|Lensky, Tunguska, Irkutsk pools||coal|
|southern and northern deposits of the West Siberian Plain||oil|
Thus, the structure of the West Siberian Plain indicates its age rocks of the area and the presence of rich mineral deposits.Despite this, there is the problem of development of oil and gas.It consists in the severe natural conditions.Living and working people in the northern part of the much more complicated bitter cold and high winds.The soil in the north pinned permafrost, construction seems therefore not an easy task.In the summer, increasing the number of blood-sucking insects that create the complexity of work.
Instead of conclusion
Today, the question remains the protection and rational use of resources in Western Siberia.Predatory destruction of the natural environment can lead to disastrous consequences.It should be borne in mind that the natural system is interconnected, and therefore need to strive not to violate its harmony.