Mr Mikhail Bulgakov was born in 1891, 3 (15) of May.He was born in Kiev.The parents of the future writer - Barbara M. (nee Intercession), a teacher, after - Inspector courses for women.His father - also a teacher, worked at the Kiev Theological Academy.Michael was the eldest son in a large family, which were very strong cultural traditions.Creativity Bulgakov and his biography, we describe in this article.
Study in the gymnasium, passion for theater, literature, marriage
Education held its first in Kiev gymnasium.The future writer graduated only two excellent marks - according to the law of God, and geography.At this time he is interested in theater (he knew, for example, by heart, "Aida" and "Faust"), reads "enthusiastically" Saltykov-Shchedrin and Gogol, there is also the first product of that creativity Bulgakov noted.
In 1907, his father died.In 1913, Bulgakov married TNLappe.
period from 1916 to 1917 - the end of the Kiev University, where he studied at the Faculty of Medic
Practice in Kiev
In 1918 Bulgakov returned to Kiev, where he attempts to engage in medical practice (private - how volnopraktikuyuschy venereal diseases).At this time, according to the writer, he was called as a doctor in the service consistently by all the authorities, who occupied the city.But Bulgakov managed to escape, and the Red Army, and from Petliura, "engage" him.
military service, professional occupation literature
In 1919-1920 the following events occur in the life of the writer.Bulgakov was "mobilized" Denikin and sent to the North Caucasus to the echelon.There he became engaged in professional literature: in this time of the first stories appeared in newspapers Vladikavkaz and Grozny, which reflects the movement of the white sympathy, perception as a "historical misfortune," the abdication of Nicholas II, etc.He participates as a doctor in the fighting.Denikin, retreating under the onslaught of the Red Army, the patient's fever dropped Bulgakov to fend for themselves, which served as the basis for the disappointment in these "comrades-in-arms."Bulgakov begins with the arrival of Red Branch to work in the arts.His activity was reports about Chekhov and Pushkin, writing for the local theater plays, one of which, entitled "Paris Commune", he even went to Moscow, relying on the success of an ad in this city competition.
Moving to Moscow
In 1921, Mr Mikhail arrived in Moscow, where he went to work for the post of Secretary-General in the literary department at the People's Commissariat.In search of work since the beginning of the NEP, he often changes his place of service: Chronicle editor works in one of the private newspapers, entertainers, engineers, etc.At the same time it settles on the gardens, a communal apartment house, which once belonged to the tobacco manufacturer.Many times mores apartment №50 will arise in a variety of products that make up the work of Bulgakov.
In 1922 Bulgakov actively printed press - in magazines such as "horn", "Work", "Red Journal for all", "railroad", "Red Field" and others.
Cooperationin the "dial tone", new works and a new marriage
period from 1922 to 1926 - the cooperation with the newspaper titled "Beep" and is printed "Yesterday" in Berlin Russian newspaper, whose editor - A. Tolstoy, at thenot yet returned from exile.
Life and Works of Bulgakov in 1923-1924 to present the following two key events.In 1923 appears the novel "Notes on the cuffs."The following year, Mr Mikhail meets LE Belozerskaya, returned from exile in Paris, marries her.
In 1925, Bulgakov's work continues.Appears "Diaboliad" - the first collection, consisting of satirical stories.Then the leaves and a collection of stories called "The Fatal Eggs".This year also marked the creation of the manuscript "Heart of a Dog" - a work that only after 60 years was published.The search
In May 1926, Bulgakov's staff conducted a search of the OGPU, withdraw the above manuscript, as well as blogs.Writer, referring repeatedly requesting him to return these materials and not getting to these requests no reply, said that will soon be forced out of the Russian Union of Writers defiantly.After this paper, including the manuscript of "The Heart of a Dog" Bulgakov returned.
Works 1925-1928 years
In 1925-1926 cycle out "stories" as well as a collection of stories entitled "Notes of a young doctor."
to the period from 1925 to 1927 years are the following events.It was created by the novel "The White Guard".In his reasons in 1926, it was written and staged the play "Days of Turbin," which premiered at the Moscow Art Theater took place at the same time.
From 1926 to 1928, Mikhail Bulgakov, whose life and works are presented in our article, wrote a play called "Running", but in 1957 saw the audience.
In 1926, as the play was created "Zoyka apartment", which was staged at the Vakhtangov Theater.At the "Days of Turbin," it was soon withdrawn because of pressure biased criticism.
In 1928 - another piece for the theater ("Crimson Island").It was delivered to the Chamber Theater in the same year, but this time the play was almost immediately banned.
Evaluation of creativity Bulgakov literary criticism Literary criticism
late 1920s estimated the work of Mikhail Bulgakov's abhorrence.His works were not published, it does not play on the stage.For example, the known negative comments about the play of Stalin's "Running", which, in his view, is "anti-Soviet phenomenon.""Waste paper" called the leader of the "Crimson Island".The result of persecution - Bulgakov biography and creativity of which before were often marked by the negative effects of contact with the Soviet authorities, is without work and therefore without the means, writes "The government of the USSR," the letter and sends it to the seven addresses of various institutions of power.Trying to understand their fate, he explained in a letter to the author's position, saying that he prefers the Great Revolution of the Great Evolution, that is more natural, in his view, the gradual course of history.In an apartment Michael Afanasievich in 1930. April 18 Stalin called himself, and as a result of this conversation, the writer promised to provide in the Moscow Art Theater work.The unspoken premise of the agreement was the establishment of praising the leader of the work.Later, in 1939, it was written a play called "Batum", narrating about "teens leader."However, neither its content or tone of the narrative power did not satisfy.
Work in the Moscow Art Theater
Since the beginning of work in the Moscow Art Theater Bulgakov's life and work have changed significantly.Bulgakov since the beginning of 1930 in the theater has served as director-assistant.It refers to this period of his life passion Shilovskaya Elena Sergeevna (1929), who later became his wife.
In 1931, appears the play "Adam and Eve".During this and next year, he wrote dramatization of Tolstoy's works, "War and Peace" by order of the Bolshoi Drama Theater.However, this performance was not raised.
In 1932 there was a re-enactment of Gogol's "Dead Souls".Go back to the audience (on the personal order of Comrade Stalin) "Days of turbines."
In the years 1930-1936 was created drama called "The Cabal of Hypocrites", set in 1943.He preceded this work on "Life of Monsieur de Moliere," a biographical story, in 1932-1933.It was published in 1962.
Another play, "Bliss," was published in 1934 (published only in 1966).
in 1934-1935.out drama titled "The Last Days", staged in 1943, she first conceived in collaboration with VV Veresaeva.
Bulgakov refuses "rework"
period from 1934 to 1936 is marked by the following events.Appears Bulgakov's play "Ivan Vasilievich".This brought to the dress rehearsals at the Theatre of Satire work was withdrawn on the eve of the premiere.The writer for the period from 1928 to 1936, no item has not been published, as well as on the stage not a single piece, representing the original work MABulgakov.Mr Mikhail stubbornly refuses to "rework", tells him (for example, "forge" of a white officer from the product "Running" complete revolutionary choral song "Crimson Island", etc.).
In 1936-1937 has been created "Theatrical Novel" (unfinished work).It was published in 1965.
Bulgakov in 1938, creates a play called "Don Quixote."Since the beginning of 1930 until the end of his life also he continued to work on his most famous work, which is now treated primarily by studying the work of Bulgakov - "The Master and Margarita."
Bulgakov in 1940, died in Moscow from kidney disease, which his family was hereditary (passed on from father to the writer).
Thus ends the life and work of Mikhail Bulgakov - now recognized as a classic of Russian literature.