Australia: flora.

In one version of the scientists, the oldest continent on our planet is just Australia.Flora, fauna, topography and any other natural features here began to form about 3 billion years ago.Paradoxically, people have discovered these lands relatively recently, which is why local nature is still much more original and unique than in other parts of the Earth.Well, let's find out in more detail what it is, the flora and fauna of Australia, what are its features, and more.

Geographical location

itself Mainland Australia is the smallest in the world.It is located in the southern hemisphere, in Eastern part of the world, washed by the Indian and Pacific Oceans.The coastline of the mainland heavily indented bays, which are formed by numerous sea.The Pacific Ocean is the Tasman, Coral and Arafura Sea.The Indian Ocean is the most famous sea Timor.Australia is surrounded by a variety of the island, among which there are two very large - Tasmania and New Guinea.Also close to the smallest continent is the world's

largest coral reef, which is called the Great Barrier Reef.

weather

great influence on the formation of flora and fauna have provided for centuries climatic zones in Australia.Despite its small size, the mainland is located in three main areas.Here you can find the area of ​​equatorial climate, tropical and temperate.They are separated by passing zones: subtropical, desert and semi-desert.On the air temperature here is very strongly influenced by ocean currents - the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño.Thanks to them, cyclones formed with dry and gusty winds that dominate over most of the territory.Since Australia's climatic zones are so diverse, the weather in different parts of the continent unique.In the northern and north-eastern part of the tropical zone prevails.In the summer there are marked moderate rainfall in the winter drought prevails.From the center of the mainland and closer to the west stretch of desert and semi-desert - an area of ​​equatorial climate.Southwest coast - solid subtropics, and south-eastern part, including the island of Tasmania - that's temperate zones.

main attraction of the local landscape - desert

Desert Australia occupy about 45 percent of the continent.They are located in the North-West, in the tropical and subtropical zone.A feature of the Australian desert is that there are brown and reddish soil.This ensures that all sands are coral shade that nowhere in the world are no longer found.

Thus, the main deserts of Australia - is:

  • Great Sandy Desert. is covered with the same red sand, which occasionally found acacia and eucalyptus.
  • Victoria Desert. most extensive sandy area of ​​the continent.Here there is the most arid climate, because the plant is not found.
  • Gibson Desert - a place covered with gravel and crushed stone.It differs from others with high hills.
  • Simpson Desert. vast territory covered with red sand.Here there are only low-growing plants such as shrubs.
  • The Pinnacles. Unconventional desert, which is covered with yellow sand.On a flat area just grow spiky rocks height of about 2 meters.

Relief and its features

Australia - the flat continent in the world.For centuries, the wind fanned virtually all of its breed, because the terrain consists mainly of plateaus and plains.However, Australia is now the mountains are shown in the form of one ridge, known as the Great Dividing.They are located in the east of the continent, and due to the fact that they have not too much height, covered with trees, shrubs and other plants.The highest point - Mount Kosciuszko, whose height is 2228 meters.Note, however, that it is not only the mountains of Australia.Elevations on the continent are found in all coastal areas.But they are so insignificant that geographers do not attribute them the status of full-scale ranges, and refer them to the category of the hills.

Floral symbol of the country

Now, finally, consider what wildlife is characterized by Australia.The flora of this land has its own symbol - eucalyptus.This tree is adapted to the most severe weather conditions, can live a long time without water and brings gusty trade winds and monsoons.The fact that eucalyptus has a very large root system, which is often larger than the surface portion of the tree.Thus the plant reaches the underground line to the swamps, rivers and other sources from which draws moisture.Eucalyptus trees grow in all parts of Australia, regardless of the terrain and weather conditions.

Southern and Eastern Australia fauna

In these areas, we meet the most humid area for the mainland climate.Rains fall here throughout the year, because the soil is quite fertile and soft.In eastern Australia, are the most common bamboo thickets.They form a whole jungles that extend to the sea coast and ends at the foot of mountain watersheds.Toward the south the bamboo gives way to the so-called bottle trees.For local residents, this plant is a real boon.Its fruits are in the shape of the bottle, which is always contained clean water suitable for drinking and cooking.

northern flora

This region of the continent is, as mentioned above, in the tropics.Then there is the lush vegetation that covers a vast territory, and forms an impenetrable jungle.Among the trees north of Australia found pandanus, acacia, palm and mangrove thickets.More low-lying plants - ferns of various kinds and horsetail.The closer to the south, the area becomes deserted.The landscapes of the north-west are covered with herbs and medicinal flowers in the spring and summer, the land dries up, leaving only the hills and sand dunes.

Meet the kangaroo - a symbol of the fauna of Australia

flora and fauna of Australia are closely linked.Here there are endemic trees and shrubs, and along with these animals are found, which you will not find anywhere else.The brightest representative of the Australian fauna is a marsupial kangaroo.This animal is divided into 17 genera, among which are more than 50 species.There are kangaroos growth of no more than 25 cm - is the tiniest.The highest reach a height of 170 cm and are considered the most rare.There is also live kangaroo rat, kangaroo Derby and many other kinds of animals.

entire fauna living above ground

studying the fauna of Australia, we can see that almost all mammals here live either in the air or on the branches of tropical trees.By constantly climbing the trunks of eucalyptus koalas, possums, wombats.Unique is the Australian protein - it is summer, and like a bird, hopping between one branch to another.There have wings, even foxes, which look very bloodthirsty, but is actually harmless as feed on the nectar of flowers.Much more dangerous are the bats, which have a wingspan of half a meter and can cause enormous damage to the health of the victim.

Ground inhabitants

expanses of plains that differ wild Australia, plow funny platypus.This animal is native of the continent that lives near water.Along with him there crawling frilled lizard, which are harmless, and crocodiles, of which this is not to say.It is noteworthy that the predators on the continent almost none.Virtually the only carnivorous mammal species that occur here - a wild dog Dingo.

Conclusion Well, we looked at briefly, what it is - wild Australia.World of Plants, animals and reptiles, landscapes and climate of this continent - all unique.Only in Australia can meet the red desert, which abound in this case eucalyptus.Only here there are marsupials kangaroos, giant and tiny.It is home to foxes and squirrels with wings crawling unusual lizards and possums.And most importantly - this world is not dangerous to humans.