Everyone knows that progress - is a positive phenomenon, which represents a movement towards higher organization.But regression - which is exactly the opposite direction from the complex to the simple, from the highest to the lowest organizations, degradation.
consider different perspectives on the history of society in terms of these two opposing phenomena.
- concept of the "golden age."At first it was a society of justice without crises and challenges with a full mutual understanding, then it went the way of regression began disputes, wars, living standards fell.This theory echoes the story in the Bible about Adam and Eve's expulsion from paradise.
- cyclical development.The concept originated in the ancient times.It states that the development of the society held the same stage at regular intervals, all repeats.
- Progressive development.This idea also appeared in antiquity, but a major contribution to this theory have made the French philosophers of the XVIII century.
The criterion of progress of
In general, are the two main components of progress:
- formation of social groups, which provide the organization of society.
- level of happiness, of human freedom, personal integrity, personality, confidence in the social community.
can be concluded that the history of the development of society can not proceed linearly, identifying any patterns.It then shoots up in the direction of progress, unexpectedly meets regression.This feature, which is a certain contradiction in development.Sometimes the price is high enough that we do not notice when we begin to sink.
Nature seemed to have a balance that can not be broken.If we begin to develop one side of life, with great speed begins to fall in the well-being of another.There is an assumption that this balance can be saved if to emphasize the humanization of society, that is the individuality of each person will be recognized as the supreme value.
Biological progress and regress
biological regression - a reduction in the number of individuals of a particular species, the deterioration of the variety of forms, reduced protection to external factors.It may be a cause of species extinction
progress in the biological sense - is the development of an organism or several organisms for the best adaptation to their environment.Here it is possible not only complexity, but to simplify the organization of species, most importantly, to enhance survival in a given environment.Biologist ANSevertsov developed four main characteristics of biological progress:
- improve the adaptation of species to the environment;
- increase in the number of group representatives;
- variety of forms;
- expansion of the area.