One of the most important skills for those who like to travel or just relax savages, is the orientation on the ground.In this article, we will discuss the main ways to determine the parties horizon.
With this information you will not be lost even in the most difficult conditions.The main condition - the presence of the card.Otherwise you'll be guided by the logic and assumptions.Nevertheless, to determine your location, you can easily.
Learn methods of determining the side of the horizon, we start with the easy and obvious.With the help of a compass can be elementary to find out where the north.Only there are a few prerequisites.What you should know that you did not let this device?
First, you can define the compass only when the compass is strictly horizontal, stationary, and the arrow is no longer fluctuate.
Secondly, within fifty meters around you should not have power lines, railroad tracks, transformers and other sources of electromagnetic or magnetic radiation.Otherwise the comp
How to use this device?
most common two army compass - Hadrian and artillery, as well as sports variety.They differ only by the level of prices and the availability of various scales.
in any device on top, on a lid, is a special sight, through which you can define a reference point.So, we hold the compass horizontally, wait until the arrow stops.Dark its end point to the north.Now we turn the viewfinder so that it coincides with the vector arrow.Now, the compass is easy to identify.If you look to the north, the south is behind, the east - on the right, and the West - on the left.
Determination of the horizon by the hour - is one of the most interesting, unusual and effective ways.For its implementation requires mechanical clock with arrows.Electronic not fit.
This approach is similar to the definition of the horizon of the sun, because without light we can not do.What features of this method have orientation on the ground?
Firstly, there are different options for positioning in the morning and at lunch.Boundary time is one o'clock in the afternoon (13:00).
Second, the clock should go for sure.
So, have the device so that the arrow that shows the hours (often it is thicker and shorter than the others), looking at the sun.Next, draw an imaginary corner, which will connect the center of the dial two lines.One coincide with the hour hand and the second will take place through the number "one."
Then divide the angle in half an imaginary straight line.Ahead will be in the south, it will indicate the median line.
features are as follows.Until the afternoon we arc measured from the arrows showing the clock.That is the way that it still needs to go through to 13:00.After this time, tracing the imaginary arc counterclockwise.Therefore now we measure the path that it has already passed since the afternoon.
better way to deal with this orientation in the terrain will help you figure upstream.
According to many tourists, the following definition in the area of the horizon is most unusual.In addition, for its implementation requires additional equipment and skills.From the side it looks more like a circus trick.So, what do we need?
- metal needle for sewing.It will be our makeshift compass arrow.
- Something that will give needle buoyancy properties.This may be a vegetable oil (it abundantly lubricates metal rod or drip onto the surface of the water), a small piece of cork or foam.The main condition - the needle should swim in a horizontal position.
- metal rod has to be magnetized.This can be done by using a magnet, a piece of wool or some other available tools.For example, in the case of the needle help you become the most ordinary scissors.All you need to do is flip through their ends as if you're trying to cut in half the needle.From rapid friction of metal on metal rod starts magnets.
- capacity with water.This can be any container or, for example, a recess in wood or stone, filled with stagnant water.
Main side of the horizon (if all the above items) are determined by elementary.Well magnetized needle that floats on the surface of the water, under the influence of the magnetic field of the planet will rotate through "south-north".
only downside - is not clear which side.It will have to identify additional ways.
But this method for secure fit completely.In addition, it is very significant for teaching children terrain orientation and explain the principles of magnetic fields.
sun in one hour across the sky runs angle of fifteen degrees.People have long been guided by him.But for a more precise definition of the cardinal should know some features.
summer sun in the northern hemisphere moves on the south side of the horizon.Therefore there is not in the east and north-east.He sits down, respectively, in the north-west.
winter, repeated the same pattern, only the north side.In spring and autumn light rises and sets in the east and west.
second feature, which is based on the definition of the horizon of the sun, the length of the shadow.In principle, the shortest shadow is about an hour in the afternoon.She points to the north, if the object is stationary and is in the upright position.
For a more accurate understanding of the position is to use other methods of determining the side of the horizon.For example, a mechanical watch, which was described above.
night, when there is no light, the easiest to navigate by the North Star.It is part of the constellation Ursa Minor.As they say the astronomers, it is located near the axis of the north pole of the world, and virtually immobile, unlike other stars.Because of her very easy to determine where the north.
How do you find this star?First you need to find the Big Dipper in the sky.This constellation in a large bucket with a handle.Depending on the time of day, it can be placed vertically, horizontally or obliquely.
Now you need to mentally continue the line that connects the two stars forming the front wall of the bucket (opposite the handle).If it is extended to a distance of up to five times greater than the length of the segment, you will stumble on the North Star.
clearly seen how, on the left.
Main side of the horizon is very easy to be determined near the buildings of the sacred values.
It may be the Orthodox Church or Catholic churches, chapels, mosques and synagogues.Each of these buildings constructed on its strict laws.If
near the Orthodox church, cathedral or a temple, it is necessary to look at the bottom of the crossbar.According to legend, there were the feet of Christ.She mowed diagonally.The upper edge is directed towards the north.
altars in Catholic churches are located in the west, and in the Lutheran and Orthodox churches - in the east.
There are other signs of local determination of the horizon.Thus, the input mosques and synagogues located around the northern part of the building.According to these religions, a man entered the building must be facing Mecca or Jerusalem, respectively.
In East Asia, Buddhist buildings tend to look to the south facades.Yurts indigenous peoples of Siberia also have input from this side of the world.
The forests traditionally made clearings.Usually they are hacked or from east to west or north to south.
long been known many methods of determining the side of the horizon.To do this, people used the observations of the trees, animal behavior and other characteristics of the environment.
example, due to the abundance of light and heat in the summer on the south side of berries and fruits ripen faster and have more saturated coloring on the side facing in that direction.On freshly sawn trees on the south side of the ring is wider than the north.This is also an abundance of sunlight and heat.
There are other signs of the definition of the horizon.Ant hills on the north side are steeper and the southern - flat.It is also believed that the most icicles formed on the south side of the roof.
If there are a number of pine on them quite easily determined by the south.On this side of the barrels are lighter bark rougher.Also, it will be much more resin streaks than on the north side of the tree.The grass is greener in the summer in the south and in the north before turning yellow.
The most popular method - paying attention to the amount of moss on rocks and tree trunks.It is believed that these plants like to settle it on the north side.
Lichens and mosses
identify the signs of the horizon, we need to use complex results.This particularly applies to natural phenomena and flora.
Earlier we mentioned the most common method of finding the north side.It consists in the fact that you just need to look at the trunk of a tree or a stone.Moss should be on the north side.But if this is true will, you are lucky enough.This happens once in a hundred trees, and even more.Why is it so?What is the reason?
It's simple.These plants love the shade and humidity.It is assumed that the north side is formed by a micro-climate.But the forest is actually quite different conditions.It all depends on the terrain surrounding the reservoirs or mountains.
Additionally, you can be near the edge of the forest.Do not pay attention to the cutting and the provisions of moss and lichen on trees mark the north.Before that, those guns that you see were shadows in the depths of the forest.It is only after they were cutting margin.
The same applies to the buildings, which we discussed earlier.Traditionally, they have to be built, as we have already mentioned, but now things are changing.Some architect decided to make innovation and make the door elsewhere.
So be sure to use the signs of the complex, and it is better to bring your compass.
There are quite extravagant methods for determining the horizon with cardinal points.These include so-called "compass plant".They usually have one or more permanent features, which are gradually fixed their maturation.
For such plants, such as lettuce true compass.Outwardly, it looks like a very large dandelion with small yellow flowers.Over time, they, like his younger brother, becomes a feather-parachutes.
However, he is not a relative of an ordinary dandelion.Most of his relatives can be called a salad.
fact, compass lettuce - a weed.It grows in the steppes of the former Soviet Union almost everywhere.The fields can meet its thickets, and roadsides freestanding plant.
feature of it is that it hides the delicate surface of the leaves of the sunlight.Lettuce deploys them to one side.When the plant grows sufficiently, they will freeze in this position.Not always, but often leaves indicate a line from north to south.
If you decide to use this method exclusively, better get overgrown lettuce.Since a single plant may be an exception and confuse you.
Now we will study the latest "plant" method of determining the direction of the horizon.For this we need one, and preferably several sunflowers growing near.
From school children to know that the plant is rotated to follow the sun.That is, in the morning it looks to the east, and in the evening is turned to the west side.
However, this is not true.If you carefully follow the life of sunflower during its different stages, it can be greatly surprised.It turns out that over time, as appears from the bud and flower plate issued, the plant dies.
fully open sunflower never will rotate to follow the sun.He's always looking to where there are the first rays of the morning.If it is open, the flower will be directed toward the northeast or east.
If there are a number of obstacles, the sunflower will look only in the direction from which the first rays appear.In this case, you can not rely on it.
Modern technology Modern technology allows you to navigate the terrain only on the screen of the device.It is a professional navigator, or a normal mobile phone with Internet access.
But the reality is that the network does not catch anywhere.So even GPS is turned on before the entrance to the forest, to mark the place where you want to go back.For example, you are standing near the front line of trees, and, judging by the device, refer to the southeast.Then will come back to the northwest.This direction we remember.
second important point.If you suddenly lost communication and navigation map or have ceased to be active, to help the unusual decision.Turn on the mobile phone in the "Service" analog dial.Now you have an electronic version of a clock with hands.A further operate as described above.
So, dear readers, today we'll learn to identify the part of the horizon on the ground.This is a useful skill that will undoubtedly come in handy to mushroom pickers, hunters, lovers of wild vacation or travelers.