There are different types of chemical bonds.Among them, covalent, metallic, Van der Waals, and hydrogen ion.Let's find out what the ionic bond and what are its properties.
chemical bond carried out by moving the total electron pairs from one atom less electronegative to another, more electronegative -That's what the ionic bond.Examples of compounds formed it may be combined common feature - the content in conjunction with a strongly electronegative atoms and metal atoms.
metal atom easily donates an electron and becomes a cation.A electronegative atom such as a halogen atom, readily accepts an electron to form a negatively charged ion.These charged particles - the anions and cations - and form that which is called "ionic bond".Examples thereof - is sodium chloride, potassium bromide, lithium iodide, and other metal halides (mostly alkali).
But the connection can not be established only one ionic bond.The reason for this is noncompensation forces of attraction and repulsion.So you should only talk
not have directional properties and saturability ionic bond.Examples of links with directions and saturability - covalent donor-acceptor bonds.Unsaturated, and non-ionic manifested because accession ions with another charge there is no full payment of charge.It can be attached and other protivopolozhnozaryazhennye ions and so on.That is why around the ion is the maximum possible number of others like him, but with a different sign.However, this number is limited because of the mutual repulsion of similarly charged ions.Equilibrium is reached when a particular mutual arrangement that is characterized by a coordination number.This figure depends on the ratio of the radii of the ions.Substances with ionic bond often have a cube or octahedron coordination and are crystals.
Thus, the crystal salt - sodium chloride - has a cubic lattice.In it, each associated with a chloride ion, sodium ion and six each sodium ion - with six chlorine ions.
in oxides alkali and alkaline earth also observed ionic bond.Examples of such compounds are: calcium oxide, sodium and others.Ions can not only consist of one atom, but several.Within such a complex ion the other, and between the ions themselves - ionic bond.Examples of sulfate salts like potassium (potassium here - cation sulfate ion - anion).
should also be noted that the properties of the ion substances with very different properties of atoms and molecules of the substances.Thus, for example, chlorine ions, a part of sodium chloride, are colorless and odorless and are suitable for food, whereas molecular chloro - greenish-yellow gas with a pungent odor - is a poison.A sodium atoms react with water to blast freely soluble ions.