At all times people were very curious.They wanted to know what awaits them, and that was before them.The interest in the secrets of bygone centuries whet their curiosity more and more.Passion led to the fact that people have created one of the greatest science for the entire period of human existence - the story.You can not imagine what kind of event or fact has prompted people to create such a creation, however the science of history is the oldest of all.Its origins stretch since the time of ancient Greece and Rome, when writing, the political system, literature and art in its infancy.As the evolution of humanity has evolved history, so today we are given a unique opportunity to look through the prism of time on the events and the people who once lived and worked great deeds.Also it affects the connection of history with other popular and important subjects of our time, such as politics, philosophy and economics.This feature shows the versatility and indispensability of history as a fundamental scienc
history - the science or something more?
According to many scientists, the modern history began in 484 BC.
It was born in the famous Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which is rightly called the "father of history".Most of his historical works allowed to see the life and practices of ancient Greece, Scythia, Persia and other countries.This man is the author of a famous treatise called "History".For domestic science writings of Herodotus was the Bible.Most of the ancient tribes, described scientist, resided in the territory of modern Russia and Ukraine.
The term comes from the Greek language."History" is translated as "research" or the science that studies the life and human life in the past.A narrower definition is history as a science that studies the historical events and facts in their objective description, study, and to determine the sequence of the entire historical process.
appearance of Herodotus and other scientists working later influenced the process of becoming the story.From this point on, you can identify the main stages in the development of historical knowledge that developed over the years and more and more filled with new terms and concepts.Today, these steps are the basis in the study of historical science.
Milestones of history
history always develops cyclically.The process of its evolution has never been presented as a sequence.Impermanence of the person brings great changes in science itself, thus developing it.Almost all stages of the development of historical knowledge have many features.These unique facts characterize each stage on his own.There are four main stages, namely:
- Ancient History.
- Medieval History.
- Historical science in modern times.
- Historical science XX century.
has previously noted that the stages of development of historical knowledge have their own characteristics.Each of them is inherent in one or another aspect that distinguishes stage of an array of others.
1) The history of the ancient world was fundamental, as all subsequent interpretations of the science came from the original version.For this phase of the following characteristics: a creative approach to science, historical events were described, along with geography and economics of location, it was not a scientific narrative form, they are not differentiated science discipline.
2) The Middle Ages brought in some aspects of the story, which was not previously.For example, already in the 17th century was formed the general picture of world history.Also it established a uniform system of chronology, and the growth of interest in the past progressed.
3) A new time - a century of science and technology.This step has brought the history of fundamentally new approaches to learning.In science, dominated by the principles of objectivity, historicism and critical analysis of historical sources.
4) Even taking into account all stages of the innovation development of historical knowledge were not so explosive effect as in the XX century.At this time, the story has become a foundation of politics, sociology, social psychology, and others. Science is actively used the politicians of those times for the sake of propaganda.Also on the stage of development it influenced the collapse of the colonial empires.Many unknown states were able to join the world community and to give everyone their own culture.
history as the main and secondary science
previously was marked by the fact the versatility and functionality of history as a science.This judgment is proved by the fact that this science can be considered as primary and as secondary.History Major gives the world not only classical knowledge of the past, but also contributes greatly to the other sciences, such as philosophy and politics.However, the story can be used as the context in which will address the main stages of formation of an entirely different science.For example, the main historical stages of development of ecological knowledge developed for many years.Each of them has gone through certain time frame from different eras.From here you can talk about the history of these stages.
history and politics
ability to govern the state has arisen for a long time.To learn this craft, many military leaders, scholars or just wealthy citizens of a country have learned over the years.This ability is called politics.It can be compared with the art, as for the successful management of all public processes of a person needs a little bit more than just talent.The politician - a sculptor whose clay is a state and its inner life.This science has appeared and developed in parallel with the story.The political system of Greece, which originated and policies contributed to its development.Milestones in the history of political knowledge related to the process of formation of historical science.This is due to the fact that the historical process of actually spawned policy.Many of the "venerable" politicians using their historical knowledge to manipulate the consciousness of the masses.But that is another topic.
main historical stages of the development of philosophical knowledge
history and philosophy almost always been in close relation to each other.These sciences supplement and develop themselves.History allows you to take a look at how the world was in the past, shows the spiritual philosophy, the essence of the past and the identity of man.
parallel development of these sciences has brought the world an entirely new branch of knowledge - history of philosophy.It allows you to take a look at how to develop the philosophy of taking into account the historical events related to this development.Major periods are formational essence of socio-economic relations.
By its nature, history and philosophy - a related science.The only difference in the way the representatives of the world of science.If historians are only interested in chronology and other aspects of life past, philosophers considered the spiritual perception of the world.But the stages of development of historical knowledge to help identify periods of formation and development of philosophy.To date, there are the following steps in philosophy:
- the philosophy of antiquity.
- feudal philosophy.
- bourgeois-formational philosophy.
- Modern science philosophy.
Law of three stages
history not only gave, but also received certain benefits from the process of joint development philosophy.Back in 1830 was put forward a theory that later became law.It is in many ways defined the time.Its author, Auguste Comte, called the theory of the "law of three stages of historical development of knowledge."He suggested that all the knowledge and information are the three main stages in the process of implementation in the human mind.These three theoretical stage to allocate with the help of the study of human consciousness.By law, you can explain in detail and explore all the stages of development of historical science.
Description of the stages of the "Law of three stages»
Each stage has its own purpose.There are only three stages: theological, metaphysical, positive.The features of each are determined by the functions that it performs.
1) Theological stage is to determine the primitive to get knowledge about anything.Thus the mind of man is in the infant.All external processes in analogy to explain his own actions.
2) The metaphysical stage - a "staging post".At this stage, the mind tends to absolute knowledge.Unlike the first stage only in the fact that man is able to think abstractly, and not compared to the commonplace.
3) A positive step is the peak of the evolution of thinking.In the context of this step is the introduction of knowledge in a certain industry.According to Comte, this stage is the most serious because it shows the evolution of specific knowledge in the human mind.
With this theory of the stages of development of history are filled with facts and events, and much studied scrupulously."Law" illustrates the process of progressive development of history as a science.
Thus, the article was considered the origin and main stages of development of historical knowledge, and related sciences.In today's world acts out the story an important role.It is a fundamental science in the learning process.In addition, scientists have enriched science with new knowledge by using new technologies and techniques.