Archaeological monuments - this immovable silent witnesses of past eras.They reflect the activity of a man who lived in those times, when it was built or that historical object.Scientists all sites are divided into groups depending on the purpose for which intended structure.
Types of archaeological sites
Just need to make a reservation - classification is arbitrary.Different sources classification drawn up for various reasons and may differ significantly from each other.
- Funerary monuments include mounds, dirt mounds, cemeteries, cenotaphs, memorials, and many other facilities.These archaeological sites have a lot of varieties.By studying them, scientists can not restore traditions of the peoples, their beliefs.It must be said that the mounds are burial place of the people - this is the most common archaeological sites in Russia, especially in the steppe and forest areas.
- Settler monuments such as the ancient city, parking, cave, industrial workshops, mines, roads, water systems reflect the everyday life of the person and carry valuable information about the way of life of people of a certain age.Descriptions of the homes of people, obtained from the results of excavations, sometimes very different from each other.Construction of the places where people lived depended on the duration of his stay in a given place, the principal activity, belonging to a particular caste, and many other factors.
- Religious monuments give an idea of the rituals performed in churches, shrines and other places revered person.This type of monuments include stone sculptures that exist in all corners of the planet.Sometimes they were part of the memorial complex, but in some cases, carried out an independent role in the commission of certain rituals.
- primitive art are cave paintings, graphics, sculpture.These types of archaeological sites are found on all continents.They differ only content, method performance.And it depended on the time of the creation of drawings, residence of man, his spiritual culture.A distinctive feature of the monuments of this kind is that they are on the surface of the earth, and special work associated with their discovery, it is not necessary to carry out.
- cave monuments are of great historical value.This is due to the fact that a person quite a long time used the cave as a dwelling or shelter from danger.Then they were held religious ceremonies.Monuments have been found in caves, are a wealth of information about life in the deep past.
- A special group of monuments include random findings, shipwrecks, cities, treasures and other objects.For him, too, can restore people's historical past.
Traces of human activity, lived tens, hundreds and thousands of years ago, objectively exist, it is an indisputable fact.Some of these archaeological sites are well-known scientists, the general public, they are used by modern man for certain purposes.On the other artifacts of humanity has yet to learn.In this regard, types of archaeological monuments divided into known and unknown.The first type of sites studied, protected by the law of the State where it is located, and thus to some extent protected from destruction.On the second form of monuments, which certainly exist, humanity does not know yet, as they are hidden from us.
The era of primitive man
Archaeological Site of the primitive era indicate that human life is largely dependent on the climatic conditions in which he lived.Thus, for example, about 35-40 thousand years ago, a significant part of the territory of modern European part of Russia was in the offensive zone of the glacier.
principal activity of the person at that time was hunting, as in the periglacial zone and south of it vodilos huge number of animals.They provided not only food and clothing, but also shelter.Historians have found the remains of dwellings, where the supporting pillars, the bases of buildings, their skeletons are made from the bones of large animals.Mammoths, deer, cave lions, woolly rhinos and many other animals were hunted ancient man.
When constructing homes had bone firmly bonded to each other, for that they had to make holes and slots.It covers such buildings warm animal skins.In most homes have a circular shape, with a conical roof.
also found the burial of people - the most valuable archaeological sites of the primitive era.The findings indicate that the stone and animal bones were the main materials from which to make tools, weapons and ornaments of ancient man.With the changing climate has changed flora and fauna, as well as the activities of people.The main habitat were flood plains, coastal areas of reservoirs.It was here that scientists are constantly finding archaeological sites that help explore the life of prehistoric man.
But to get a complete picture of human evolution, scientists have studied a large amount of historical material.With proper excavations run by historians very often in the workplace can not find archaeological sites belonging to different epochs of human life.These are the findings of scientists are the most valuable.
Archaeological Site of Stone Age lead to the conclusion that by the end of this period, people have occupied a large area, and its habitat were located in different corners of the Earth.Resettlement of people due to climate warming, the retreat of glaciers.Changed the flora and fauna - there were coniferous forests inhabited by different species of animals.A large number of small and large ponds where the fish vodilas, gave impetus to the development of fisheries.And hunting for forest animals are already different from what it was before.Tools and weapons found in the places where people live, though it was made of stone, but had a more perfect forms and methods of treatment of the material.
Archaeological Site of Stone Age also point to the fact that people there are the beginnings of religious culture, the individual arts.Changing social lifestyles.Archaeological Site of Stone Age Russian found almost throughout the country.The most studied monuments found in what is now Kaliningrad, Moscow, Kaluga and Tver regions, the Ussuri region and some other places.
Guide to the past
For the convenience of researchers and introduction of a certain order in this sphere of activity of all archaeological sites of the world are recorded and entered in a special list.The index finds notes belonging to a certain age.In addition, it specifies the types of archaeological monuments, describes them with a list of the main findings.It determines the extent of the destruction at the time of discovery of the historical building.For scientists, it is very important to specify the exact location of the monument.
In these pointers can find information about public collections and museums around the world are stored objects found at the site.Any interested person has the opportunity to become acquainted with the list of literature, which provides the most complete and accurate description of the archaeological sites, the history of its discovery, the progress of works related to the excavation.These may be literary, archival and scientific sources.
a great addition to the list of directories are archaeological maps that, among other things, allow you to see what place on Earth has not been studied by historians.
Guides archaeological sites exist in each country.Archaeological sites in Russia, too, made a special list, which is edited as new information provided by scientists.
Archaeological monuments Russia
Archeological finds on the territory of Russia are not uncommon.Many of them have global significance, causing scientists to change the perception of the progress of development and the existence of different civilizations.
For example, in Khakassia, in the valley of the White Iyusa in 1982 was opened the ancient sanctuary.The observed structure is reminiscent of the observatory.After examining the findings of archaeologists have concluded that even in the Bronze Age people who lived in what is now Siberia, were able to use the calendar and with astonishing accuracy the time.
Even more surprising discovery in the area of Achinsk.Wand mammoth ivory coated with a peculiar pattern of not less than 18 thousand years.Scientists believe that this subject is also a kind of lunar-solar calendar.This suggests the existence of an even more ancient civilization than the Sumerian, Egyptian, Hindu, Persian, Chinese.
In the upper reaches of the Yenisei, Altai, is known among archaeologists Arzhan.The interesting thing is that the rules of its construction and arrangement the same as those which were built burial structures in other regions and at other times.
on the territory of Central Asia, in the southern parts of Siberia, the Caucasus, in the Crimea, the archaeologists found the remains of irrigation systems, roads, places of smelting.
Archaeological sites located throughout the Russian territory.Siberia, the Far East and European Russia, the Urals, the Caucasus, Altai - the regions where they found a unique historical finds.In many of these areas being excavated today.
territory of the ancient Urals
Archaeological monuments Urals was truly unforgettable.The existence of the ancient settlements in these places historians said a few centuries ago.But only in 1987 a special expedition found a fortified settlement Arkaim.It is located in the Southern Urals, between the upstream Tobol and Ural.
expedition was appointed because of construction planning in these areas a large reservoir.Archeological group consisted of two scientists, several students.None of the leadership and members of the expedition had no idea of the possible existence of a unique historical monument in the steppe regions of the Ural region.The characteristic landforms were spotted by accident.
around the ancient city, scientists have discovered 21 more ancient settlement, which indicates the existence of a kind of country towns.In addition, this finding proves once again that the archaeological sites of the Urals really unique.
In these places, scientists have found a settlement of people who lived here 8-9 thousand years ago.Among other findings, found the remains of domestic animals.This suggests that people already engaged in their cultivation.
disappointing is that the excavations were conducted carelessly, in violation of generally accepted rules and regulations.For this reason, part of the ancient settlement destroyed.Such an attitude towards history can be qualified as a crime.Protection of archaeological sites should be done at the state level.
history finds Arkaima had continued.According to the plan of building the entire territory of the reservoir, where the historical monument, was to go under water.However, thanks to the efforts of some members of the public and scientists managed to defend a unique object.
In 1992, the entire area, on which the Arch, walked to the Ilmen State Reserve, becoming its affiliates.To date, we conducted a complete study of the monument.For this method is used not only the excavation but also other modern scientific methods of studying the material.
In place of an architectural monument found the remains of humans and animals.It was learned that the horse had already been used as a means of transportation person.Detected harness, tools used for its production.
Pottery accessories and pottery - further evidence that suggests a new level of development of crafts.Arrowheads, metal parts tools testify to the same.
most surprising for the modern man it might seem that the ancient settlement was discovered in the sewage system and water supply.
Samara and her distant past
Archaeological monuments Samara region unusually varied in type and accessories of a particular era.This is due to the fact that the territory of modern Samara has been inhabited by people for another 100 thousand years ago.Man attracted favorable natural conditions, which are characteristic of the steppe and forest-steppe zone.
Today scientists know about two thousand ancient monuments that have been discovered in the region.Some of them still exist today, while others have disappeared because of their exposure to the forces of nature or as a result of human activities.There are many monuments, the existence of which is known, but archaeological work for their study has not yet begun.In addition, we must remember that the excavation of the monument, sooner or later will lead to its destruction.It takes place in the time of the works and after their completion, when the ancient structures are exposed to the external environment.Therefore, the solution of the need for excavation should be balanced and considered.
Archaeological monuments Samara region include sites of ancient human settlements and towns, which were built by people in later periods.The mines, the mine where the extracted minerals for the production of tools and military armor, are also valuable sources of information on the economic activities of our ancestors.
beskurgannye burial mounds and - they are different types of archaeological sites.They are also available in large quantities on the territory of Samara.Due to findings contained in the cemeteries, was restored image of people living here, revealed his view, to examine the level of development of Culture and Art.Scientists have even managed to establish affiliation of people of a particular nationality.
rich historical past of Kazakhstan
Archaeological sites of Kazakhstan are also a rich source of information about the resettlement of people in the country.Given the fact that in ancient times there was no written monuments can be considered almost the only evidence of the past.
One of the most famous memorial complexes - Besshatyr mound - located on the territory of modern Kazakhstan.The building is striking in its scale - it includes 31 burial.The size of the diameter of the largest of which is 104 meters, and height - 17 meters.Such structures exist in other parts of the country.
people belonging to the eastern branch of the Scythian nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes, called collectively - Saks.In the first millennium BC, they inhabited the present territory of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, the southern regions of Siberia and the coast of the Aral Sea.
Archaeological sites Saks opened for the descendants of their way of life, the development of the level of culture and traditions.Burial mounds are concentrated mainly in the field of winter parking tribes.These are the places that are particularly dear to Saks.
excavations carried out in different habitats of people, led to the conclusion that the main economic activity Saka peoples were nomadic, semi-nomadic and sedentary cattle.Tribes bred sheep, camels, horses.According to the materials obtained in the course of excavations, it was even able to determine which species of animals bred Saks.
In addition, it was found that the people belonging to tribes, divided into categories - priests, warriors, and commoners.Among the soldiers he was chosen king, who was the ruler of the tribes to unite in unions.
Among the most significant science Saka archaeological sites - such as the Issyk burial, Uigarak, Tegisken.Besshatyr and Chiliktinskaya mounds known far outside Kazakhstan, Russia and CIS countries.
During the excavation of Issyk barrow were found the remains of a man, with whom in the burial chamber was rich equipment and many other household items.