What is mythology.

In ancient legends people reflect their own ideas about the world, they believed in the existence of Olympus, the celestial and the subterranean realms.The mythology of Ancient Greece tells about the origin of the gods and the people most vividly.The Greeks have preserved hundreds of legends about how the cultural heroes were born than become famous?and how to untie their fate.

What is mythology?The concept of gods and heroes

Translated from the Greek word "myth" means "story".This category may include tales of gods, heroes and exploits the phenomena of nature.Myth perceived as reality and transmit it from generation to generation.One could argue that it is one of the oldest forms of folklore.

Myth was the result of myth-making: the whole of nature and the world consisted of intelligent beings that make up the community.The ancient Greeks fetishirovali physical objects and forces, inspired the them.Everything inexplicable, what came across a man attributed supernatural powers.Ancient Greek go

ds were anthropomorphic.They had human appearance and magical knowledge, can change shape and were immortal.Like humans, the gods performed feats, were defeated and were dependent on less powerful at first glance, things - the three goddesses of fate.Moira decided the fate of every citizen of heavenly and earthly, so they had not even dared to argue Zeus.

The myth is different from religion?

all ancient peoples, including the Greek and Roman, passed the stage of fetishism idolatry.Initially, the subject of reverence might be products of wood and metal, which soon began to acquire the outlines of the divine, but the statues were still bare stone without a soul and magic power.

mythology and religion - concepts are similar, and it is sometimes difficult to identify the difference in them, since the second is a part of the first.Many national religions are worshiped anthropomorphic beings endowed with supernatural power - this is the gods, a variety of which can be seen in the Roman and Greek cultures.The existence of any religion is unthinkable without mythology.Heroes fighting, marry, reproduce offspring - all this is happening with miraculous powers and magic.At a time when the myth tries to explain supernatural events, he begins to acquire a religious tinge.

Ancient mythology as a whole arsenal of world culture

Friedrich Engels maintained that no Greek and Roman influences would not be modern Europe.The revival of the Greek legacy began in the Renaissance period, when writers, architects and artists once again began to draw inspiration from the stories of the Hellenic and Roman tales.Today, museums around the world are presented to visitors majestic statues of gods and other beings, but pictures can tell about a certain moment a significant event.The theme of "mythology" and writers were interested in the "Golden Age".By ancient accessed Pushkin and Derzhavin, only to display their thoughts, they did not use a paint brush, and the word.

curious that the myths of Greek and Roman peoples formed the basis of world culture, even after many centuries.Modern man has a different point of view regarding the origin of the universe, however, does not cease to refer to ancient ideas and enjoy exploring the cultural heritage of the old days.Myth was the first attempt to explain the universe, and over the centuries has acquired not religious, and aesthetic character.Strengths of the characters depicted in the "Odyssey" and "Iliad", and current draw men and women trying to nature and beauty to be like Venus, Aphrodite, Diana.Unfortunately, many people do not attach importance to how to become part of the myth and mythology in the life of modern man.But they play a huge role in world culture.

origin of Earth

Ancient Greek and Roman mythology is striking in its originality.Many still wonder how people can so skillfully represent the creation of the world - or maybe it was all for real?In the beginning there was Chaos, from which there was Gaia - the Earth.At the same time there were Eros (Love), Erebus (darkness) and Nyukta (night).Underground born Tartarus - hell of a place where sinners are sent after death.From the darkness of the night and took Ether (light) and Hemera (Day).Earth gave birth Uranus (the sky) who took her as his wife and sired six titans who gave the world the rivers, the sea goddess, the sun, the moon, the wind.Now in the world there were all the elements, and the people did not know misery until until the evil creatures.Earth has spawned three Cyclops, whose jealous Uranus concluded in darkness, Jr. by name Krohn, climbed out and took his father's authority.Rebellious son could not go unpunished, and further developments as the legend goes.Goddess and Gods, whose name was Death, strife, deceit, destruction, sleep, and Vengeance, for the crime were born Nyuktoy.And there was the ancient world, according to the ideas of the ancient Greeks.Progeny Chaos lived in the underworld and on land, and each had its own destiny.

Gods of Greek mythology

Antique religion is much different from the present, and if today the representatives of the four major religions believe that there is only one Creator, but a few thousand years ago, people had a different opinion.The Greeks believed that the gods lived on the sacred Mount Olympus.Each had its appearance and purpose.The mythology of Ancient Greece is represented by twelve major gods.

ancient Greek gods
Thunderer Zeus Lord of heaven and all the human, the divine world, the son of Crohn's.His father swallowed the birth of their children - Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades and Poseidon.Zeus grew up in Crete and years later rebelled against the Crown, and his assistants, the Giants won, liberated brothers and sisters.
Gera

goddess of marriage and family.Beautiful, but brutal, punishing lovers and children of her husband Zeus.So, his mistress named Io, she turned into a cow.

Hestia

Patroness home.Zeus rewarded her innocence and made a vow to the goddess of sacrifice that starts the celebrations.So was born the ancient proverb - "to begin with Hestia."

Poseidon brother Zeus, lord of the oceans.He succeeded in marrying Amphitrite, daughter of the sea god Nereus, and he began to rule the water element.
Hades

god of the underworld.In his retinue are the carrier of souls called Charon and judge the sinners - Minos and Rhadamanthus.

Athena the goddess of wisdom and crafts.Born from Zeus's head, so different from the rest sharp mind.Fierce Athena turned Arachne into a spider, who dared to compete with her in weaving.
Apollo Lord of the sun, he could tell fortunes.His beloved Daphne did not reciprocate the love of a handsome man.It turned into a laurel crown and began to decorate the head of Apollo.
Aphrodite

goddess of beauty and love, the daughter of Uranus.According to legend, she was born on the island of Crete.When Aphrodite emerged from the foam of the goddess of the seasons, Ora, marveled at the beauty of the girl, took her to Olympus, where she became a goddess.

Hermes patron of travelers, was an expert in the trade.God gave people the writing, he has earned the title bouncer from childhood when an infant had stolen Apollo's cows.
Ares Lord of War, son of Zeus and Hera.In his retinue - Deimos (terror), Phobos (fear) and Eris (strife).It is interesting that not every mythology, the god of the world carried out its activities, accompanied by aides, but the Greeks paid particular attention to this.
Artemis sister of Apollo, the virgin forest, the goddess of hunting.Fair, but fierce, she punished the hunter Actaeon and turned him into a stag.Accident devoured by their own dog.
Hephaestus Expert blacksmithing, son of Zeus and Hera.Mother threw newborn son from a high cliff, but he picked up the sea goddess.Years later avenged Hera and Hephaestus forged her golden throne, from which it has not been able to get out.

Roman gods

Obraztsova has always been considered Greek mythology.Goddess of the Romans had their original names and purpose, and that's where the story ends.People do not invent new legends and stories took as a basis the Greeks, because their art was more vivid and colorful.Roman culture was less rich, so many moments borrowed from the Hellenic heritage.

The Romans was the supreme god Jupiter and his wife - Juno.They had the same duties as in Greek mythology.Marine lord - Neptune, and the patroness of the hearth - West.God of the underworld, Pluto was and chief commander - Mars.Rome analogue Athens was Minerva, excellent predictor - Phoebus, and his sister, Lady Diana was the forest.Venus - the goddess of love, born from the foam.Mercury travelers patronized and helped people in the trade.Blacksmith Vulcan was the Roman analogue of Hephaestus.Thus, although the Roman mythology and was reputed to be a poor, the number of gods was the same as that of the Greeks.

Sisyphean labor, panic and other

This person becomes a colorful thanks to the use of proverbs, phraseology and means of artistic expression.Ancient mythology is felt not only in a high literary style, but also in everyday life.

Speaking of excessive and useless work, people often uses the idiom "Sisyphean labor", even without delving into its etymology, while the phrase has ancient roots.For disobedience to the gods and the son of Aeolus Enarety he was severely punished.For millennia Sisyphus has to roll a huge stone up the mountain, where the height is no limit, but it is necessary to release the unfortunate hand - as a lump crush him.

Panic fear felt sure each of us at least once in their lives, and we owe this expression to the god Pan bizarre appearance of man with goat legs.His sudden appearance of creature strikes fear in travelers, but from his sinister laughter froze the blood in his veins.And an expression of "panic" means fear of something inexplicable.

Tantalum - a cunning Greek who tried to steal from the table of the gods of their wonderful food and share it with people, for which he was severely punished.Unfortunate was thrown into hell, and exhausted by thirst, unable to drink because he was up to his neck in water.As soon as he opened his mouth - the liquid disappears.And there was phraseologism "tantalizing".

People who do not know what the mythology, do allow themselves to shine mind, using his speech interesting idioms.In his epic Homer dedicated several verses describe the unrestrained laughter of the gods.Great often allow themselves to mock something goofy and awkward, with the power to laugh at.So was born the expression "Homeric laughter".

mythological themes in the literature of recent centuries

fair to say about the impact of culture on the ancient Russian poetry.To the ancient Greek heritage often turned Alexander Pushkin, and his novel in verse "Eugene Onegin", you can deduct a lot of verses, which featured the names of Zeus, Juvenal, Circe, Terpsichore, Flora and other deities.Sometimes you can find individual words or entire phrase, written in ancient Greek.This technique is relevant even in modern times, and often journalists, politicians and other influential figures prefer to speak in aphorisms.C`est la vie sounds much more solemn than simply "that's life" and a letter, a completed phrase Vale et me ama gets a great value and depth of thought.By the way, the hero of the novel by Pushkin himself preferred to finish the message of this phrase in ancient Greek.

Russian poet Osip Mandelstam knew that such a mythology, and his attraction to antiquity began with the first book "Stone".In poems noticeably Erebus, Homer's Odyssey and has the golden fleece.The poem Silentium !, which translated from Latin means "silence" causes the reader interest by its very name.The heroine in a lyrical text - the goddess Aphrodite, which Mandelstam calls remain the sea foam.

founder of Russian Symbolism Bryusov recognized that for him "the closest thing Rome", so Roman mythology often appears in his poetic lines.In the works he says Agamemnon, Orpheus, Amphitryon, Orion celebrates the beauty of Aphrodite, and asks her to take this verse;It refers to the god of love, Eros.

Gavrila Derzhavin openly shifted the Roman poet Horace's ode "To Melpomene".The main idea of ​​the poem "Monument" - the eternity of the poetic heritage and the recognition of his work.After several decades of Alexander Pushkin wrote a work of the same name and in the epigraph refers to Rome.Exegi monumentum translated from Latin means "I have erected a monument."Thus, the theme of immortality is revealed in three great poets: Horace, Derzhavin and Pushkin.Geniuses prove that literature and mythology can coexist, and through their union are born great work.

arts and architecture on subjects mythology

Peter Sokolov Painting "Daedalus, Icarus wings binds" is considered the pinnacle of fine art, so often subjected to copying.The work was written in 1777 and now on display in the Tretyakov Gallery.Artists struck the legend of the great Athenian sculptor Daedalus, who, along with his son Icarus was imprisoned in a high tower.Dodger fashioned wings from feathers and wax, and freedom seemed to have close ... Icarus flew high to the sun - the light seared his aircraft, and the boy fell down and crashed.

The Hermitage unique flag, remained intact after a mad threw acid on him and stabbed.It is a "given" - the painting of Rembrandt.A third leaf was damaged, and the restoration took more than twelve years.Of the mythology you can see that Danae was imprisoned in the tower of his own father, when the latter had predicted the demise of the hand of Perseus - the son of his daughter.

Ancient mythology interested and Russian sculptors who as a material for the metal chosen.The bronze sculpture "Marsyas" Theodosius Shchedrin introduces another hero of the ancient myth.Forest satyr showed courage and decided to make a rival of Apollo in the art of music.Unhappy flutist for the rage was tied to a tree, where he flayed.

Piazza della Signoria in Florence, adorns the marble sculpture "Menelaus with the body of Patroclus", created on the basis of the plot of "The Iliad."The original statue was carved two thousand years ago.Patroclus, left to battle with Hector Achilles instead immediately killed and Menelaus holding his lifeless body and thinking about revenge.Ancient mythology often interested sculptors, because the subject is a human inspiration.The creators did not hesitate to portray the beautiful curves of the body that do not camouflage clothing.

"Odyssey" and "Iliad" as the pinnacle of ancient mythology

ancient Greek epic works are studied in schools and universities, and the characters depicted in them, so far borrowed writers to create stories and novels.Ancient mythology represented epic poem "The Odyssey" and "Iliad", which is considered to be the founder of Homer.He wrote his works in the 8th century BC, and only two centuries later, they were written by the Athenian tyrant Pisistratus, and until then they are transferred to the Greeks by word of mouth.The dispute about authorship arose due to the fact that parts of the epic were written at different times, also alarmed that the name Homer means "blind."

"Odyssey" tells the story of the adventures of Odysseus, who was a prisoner of the nymph Calypso for ten years, after which planned to go back home.Hero expect difficulties: he gets to the island lestrigonov cannibals and Cyclops, floats between Scylla and Charybdis, descends into the underworld, but soon returned to his beloved Penelope, who waited for him faithfully all these years, and rejected all suitors.