Modernism in architecture and art sometimes confused with modernity.Such confusion is understandable, since it comes from the usual logic: the root word indicate about the same thing, but in practice the situation is different.Nouveau - a term that defines the historical period in the context of art, whereas modernism - a definite direction, which is characterized not so much by special items, as a waiver of experience and the emphasis of previous years.
It can and should be viewed not only as an architect, but also a historical phenomenon.By and large, it was a litmus test which reacted to everything that happened, not only in the world and society in general, but also in the minds of individuals.Modernism - style perception of life, a symbol of the hopes of the time.
The term originates from the Italian, where the word is translated as modernismo "for contemporary".Generally, in this sense, languages are surprisingly united - has a similar meaning, and the French word moderne, and
emergence of modernism was triggered by a desire to move to a qualitatively new level of life in all its manifestations.The new century and new technologies have created a cult of science in its hypertrophied form, which can be traced to the same "Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin".Europe's population in the 20-ies of XX century renounced the legacy of the past and dramatically updated the styles of architecture.
According to historians, the development of modernism has received a boost as a result of revolutions, both in the political arena as well as in people's minds.In addition, a new trend was a reaction to an excess of pathos, old-fashioned and affectedness, which were inherent in the same Victorian style.The catalyst for the development of steel technological advances that have allowed to use in the creation of materials, previously inaccessible due to the primitiveness of the production process.
ideological modernism was supposed to start in the middle of the last century.The process proved to be very difficult: it depended on the little things, seemingly far removed from the architecture.This period was marked by a surge in the history of industrial development.A lot of people went to work in the big cities: the influx of new citizens' property was too small, hastily built new buildings in which apartments were rented newcomers.Decorating mock building aesthetics expressed in monograms, no hurry, preferring to withstand austerity.In other words, the architecture of the second half of the 19th century pursued exclusively practical benefits.
basic postulates of modernism
Trifles can search indefinitely, so focus attention on key points.
- modern architecture created with the most fashionable, the most modern printing supplies, and whimsical designs are different, non-standard form.Long live the revolution industrialization!Buildings are built of glass, steel and concrete.Due to the fact that the majority of enterprises producing classic brick, had too little knowledge about the hardware, many of them went bankrupt, unable to join the new wave.
- Organization of internal space focuses primarily on functionality.Rationality put at the forefront, as opposed to the first half of the XIX century.Buildings for people, not people for the building - everything is subordinated to the convenience of the person seeking in modern times.
- complete renunciation of decorative elements in common with past experience.In general, the concept of "embellishment" sent down as unworthy of a new era, praised the strict cleanliness.
- lack of national bias expressed in the specific construction of the building or the design of the future is one for all.
origins of Modernism in architecture is seen as a synonym for modernity, but it is not true at least in view of the fact that his time left behind, frozen in the eighties of the last century.At the same time, this trend is not a whole - because of its subjectivity and the diversity it has given rise to a number of branches, differing among themselves.
- natural architecture.Otherwise, it is called organic.From the name itself it is clear what the purpose of this direction, but has its own "but".Adherents it is put at the heart of a natural, soft forms inherent in objects of the world, and the materials used in the construction is not always limited to the "stone and wood".The main thing is that resources are safe, form - is biological and landscape - natural.
- Bauhaus.Functionality in its pure form.Gaudily-naked buildings, a complete lack of decorative elements, a combination of convenience and utility identically beauty.
- Art Deco.In studying the direction of modernism it should be noted that this is the most vivid, the most challenging.Style plays on the contrast with the Bauhaus, based on the bold geometry, eclecticism, strict laws (each room and object corresponds to a place and time), daring forms and unbridled thirst for luxury, expressed in the boldest materials from ivory to alligator.
- Brutalism.Expressed as a dry technicality, no surface treatment of buildings.As is the case when the name fully reflects the essence.
- Internationalism.The basic idea is the rejection of any cultural heritage.
- Rationalism and Constructivism.Key styles in the architecture of the USSR, the more we look at them below.
Materials and examples
Style modernism in architecture began to develop under the influence of improvements in manufacturing technologies of new materials.For example, this area owes its birth to the gardener Joseph Monier who created the reinforced concrete.Interestingly that it happened by chance: it was originally planned to produce a plant capacity, which would satisfy all his needs.
constructions that were built this concrete differed unprecedented move, one might even say, against the background of usual lightness of cumbersome structures.
He first found application in industrial construction (not bad for a material that originally was supposed to be the tub, right?), Then moved into the sphere of construction of residential buildings.Because of this it came into being at that time amazing works of architecture, amazing spectators with its scope.
ease and strength of reinforced concrete refined modernism.The style of architecture from that moment became a world he has allowed to build overlapping platforms at stations, facilities with stunning largest spans and more.It should be mentioned as an example the Crystal Palace in London, the Brooklyn Bridge and, of course, the Dancing House in Prague.Here to talk about it separately.
Shall we dance?
the composition consists of two parts in the form of cylinders - one of them is made in the classical style, and the second - in the destructive.Dancing house called because it resembles their outlines dancing women - a figure with a thin waist and flowing skirt creates the illusion of movement.Needless to say that the structure is in stark contrast with the classical buildings that stand side by side.
Modernism in architecture did not escape our state.This is most clearly demonstrated himself in the twenties of the last century, was reflected in the directions of rationalism and constructivism.Let us consider each of them.
term in Latin means "reasonable," and that's it.His appearance was caused by the same technical progress.Aesthetic needs of people have changed in Russia - Monogram gave way to concise forms, each of which carried a certain function.The abundance of space, simplicity, practicality, striving for the absolute, no "beauty for beauty's sake."Modernism of the 20th century used other methods of influence on human perception.It should be noted that this is the direction of a more "live" than his successor Constructivism: rationalism tried to give the buildings a smooth, pleasing to the perception of lines and shapes.
Any phenomenon is usually tied to personalities, not passed this cup and this style.Ideological inspirer and leader of direction became an architect and educator Nicholas Ladovsky.Even its definition of architecture was permeated the work of a lifetime, he wrote that the architecture operates with the space, and the space is the center of all we wanted to say adherents of rationalism.At the same time developments of the past years have not been denied, and accepted and processed in accordance with the ideas.This area is an important step in the formation of a new image of Soviet architecture, despite the fact that it was less popular than constructivism, which is hot on his heels.
This design developments that highlighted modernism of the 20th century out of the total number.This trend can be regarded as the apotheosis of practicality and the latest technology.
Proponents of constructivism, unlike the rationalists, the cornerstone put the functionality of the building, neglecting the convenience of people.It was dedicated to the grand goal of realization of progressive ideas.The achievements of the past vehemently denied, to create something new, radically different.
In practice, this has resulted in the notorious commune-houses (in common "communal"), which nullified the possibility of seclusion: a tiny room, shared bath with shower, shared kitchen.Everything is subject to strict logic and laws.Everything was fine on paper, but non-functional in everyday life.
If we take in general, the style of Russian architecture of the time had one goal - as soon as possible to step into the future, to lose the shackles of the past years of stagnation and to accompany every step of modern practicality, consistent clean lines.
To date, no single fashion style that would be used in the construction of buildings.Scale permissiveness allowed to indulge in all serious - now every building as sees.However, of all varieties it is still possible to distinguish the following modern architectural styles:
- Hi-tech - an ode to technical progress, the active opposition of naturalness.
- Bio-tech - an ode to nature, the opposite of the first paragraph: flowing natural lines, the simulation of a living organism.
- Postmodernism - an ode to the historic eclectic and bizarre forms, call modernism in all its glory.
- Kitsch - an ode to madness and bad taste.The grotesque exaggeration details.Aesthetics is secondary, the main thing - to challenge society and stand out from the crowd.
Modernism in architecture has exhausted itself to the 80 th years of the twentieth century.Of course, the buildings constructed in accordance with its canons are still functioning successfully, but nothing new has been built not.Although the years the popularity behind modernism not be underestimated - it is an important step towards the formation of the whole architecture.