discovery of the neutron was the forerunner of the atomic era mankind, as in the hands of physicists turned particles capable, due to the absence of charge to get into any, even the heavy nucleus.In the course of experiments on the bombardment of uranium nuclei with neutrons, held by the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, were obtained radioactive isotopes and transuranic elements - Neptune and Pluto.Thus, it became possible to build a nuclear reactor - installation, superior in its energy power of all that was created before mankind.
nuclear reactor - is a device where the controlled reaction of nuclear fission, based on the chain principle.This principle is as follows.The nuclei of uranium bombarded by neutrons disintegrate and form several new neutrons, which in turn cause the division of these nuclei.In this process, the number of neutrons increases rapidly.The ratio of the number of neutrons in the same phase of fission neutrons to the number of the previous phase of nuclear decay is called the mu
to the nuclear reaction was controlled, and requires a nuclear reactor, which is used in nuclear power plants, submarines, nuclear-powered icebreakers in experimental nuclear installations, etc.Uncontrolled nuclear reaction will inevitably lead to an explosion of enormous destructive power.This type of chain reaction is used exclusively in the nuclear bomb, the explosion of which is the goal of nuclear decay.
nuclear reactor, releasing neutrons which are moving with great speed, to control the reaction is equipped with special materials that absorb some of the energy of elementary particles.Such materials having the ability to slow down and reduce the inertia of the movement of neutrons of the nuclear reaction are called retarders.
principle of operation of the nuclear reactor is as follows.The internal cavity of the reactor filled with distilled water circulating in special tubes.A nuclear reactor is automatically activated when you remove the core graphite rods, absorbing some of the energy of neutrons.With the beginning of a chain reaction occurs release tremendous amounts of heat energy which circulates in the reactor reaches the fuel cell.The water is heated to a temperature of 320 ° C.Then water
first loop, moving inside the tubes of the steam generator, releases heat energy received from the core of the reactor, the water of the second circuit, without touching it, which prevents ingress of radioactive particles outside a reactor hall.
further process is no different from what is happening on any thermal power plant - the water of the second circuit, which has turned into steam, gives the rotation of the turbine.A giant turbines activate generators, which generate electricity.
nuclear reactor is not a purely human invention.As in the universe are the same laws of physics, nuclear fission energy is required to maintain a coherent structure of the cosmos and of life on Earth.Natures nuclear reactor is a star.And one of them - the sun, which his energy fusion has created all the conditions for the emergence of life on our planet.