power that was in the hands of the emperor ceased to hold multi-million dollar empire.The discontent generated many problems, both in the political and social spheres, has grown into a revolution.The excitement grew.The monarch could no longer cope.He had to compromise, which became the beginning of the end of empire.
Internal preconditions Revolution
huge state residents were dissatisfied with the conditions of their living and working on many issues.The revolution of 1905-1907.Russia swept all classes.What exactly could unite people from different social groups and ages?
- Farmers had almost no rights.Despite the fact that this group was the majority of inhabitants of the Russian Empire (70%), they beg and starve.This situation highlighted the agrarian question.
- supreme power did not seek to ensure that limit their powers and carry out a series of liberal reforms.While the projects put forward for consideration ministers Svyatopolk-Mirsky and Witte.
- island remained and work the issue.The representatives of the working class complained that their interests no one to take care of.The state does not interfere in the relationship between employer and subordinates.Entrepreneurs often use it and create favorable conditions for yourself the work and payment.As a result of the revolution in Russia set itself the goal to solve it.
- discontent inhabitants of the empire, whose territory was 57% of non-Russian citizens has increased due to the unresolved national question.Forced Russification took place is not so easy as imagined power.
As a result, a small spark is instantly turned into a flame that engulfed the remotest corners of the empire.A significant role was played by the betrayal of some high military officials.They provided a revolutionary weapon and tactical recommendations, and to the outcome of the case, even before the popular uprising.
External causes of revolution
main external cause was the defeat of the empire in the Russian-Japanese war in 1904.Failures at the front have generated resentment that part of the population, which had hoped for a successful outcome of hostilities - the soldiers and their relatives.
According to unofficial versions, Germany greatly feared the growing power of Russia, and therefore sent spies who urged on the local population and spread rumors that the West would help everyone.
main event that has shaken the foundations of the public, is considered to be a peaceful demonstration on Sunday, the ninth January 1905.Later on Sunday called "bloody".
Peaceful demonstration of peasants and workers led by a priest and an active public figure George Gapon.The protesters were planning to arrange a personal meeting with Nicholas II.They were heading to the Winter.Just what was then the center of the capital gathered about 150 000 people.No one imagined that there would be a revolution in Russia.
Towards officers working out.They began to demand that protesters stopped.But the protesters did not listen.The officers began to shoot from weapons to disperse the crowd.The military, which did not have guns, swords and beating people with whips.On that day it killed 130 people and injured 299.
King during all of these events was not even in town.He prudently left the palace with his family.
Society could not forgive the royal power so many innocent people killed.Together with the priest Gapon, who on that Sunday managed to survive, we began to prepare plans for the overthrow of the monarchy.
words "Down with autocracy!" Were heard everywhere.The revolution of 1905-1907.It has become a reality.In the Russian cities and villages began skirmishes.
Revolt on the "Potemkin»
One of the turning points of the revolution began to revolt at Russian battleship - "Prince Potemkin Tauride".The revolt took place on June 14, 1905.The crew of the battleship numbered 731 people.Among them were 26 officers.Crew members are closely communicated with the workers at the shipyards.From them, they adopted the idea of strikes.But decisive action team began only after they filed rotten meat for dinner.
This was the main point of reference.During the strike killed six officers and the rest were placed in custody.Team "Potemkin" ate biscuits and water, after standing under the red flag 11 days at sea, after which they surrendered to the authorities of Romania.Their example is adopted to "George" and later - on the cruiser "Ochakov".
Of course, the results of the revolution of 1905-1907 foresee at the time it was impossible.But when the autumn of 1905 there was a large-scale All-Russian strike, the emperor was forced to listen to the people.We began its printers and supported by workers from other unions.Authority issued a decree about that now bestowed some political freedom.Also, the emperor gave the green light to the establishment of the State Duma.
granted freedom approached the Mensheviks and SRs, who took part in strikes.For them, while the revolution ended.
revolution had just begun for the radicals.In December of the same year, the members of the RSDLP organized an uprising with weapons on the streets of Moscow.At this stage, the results of the revolution of 1905-1907.replenished also published the law about the election in the first State Duma.
Having action from the authorities, referring to the results of the revolution of 1905-1907., Representatives of the Labour Party did not want to stop.They expected the results of the State Duma.
decline in activity
period from 1906 to the first half of 1907 is characterized by relative calm.The State Duma, which mainly consisted of cadets, set to work to become the main legislative body.In February 1907 it has already created a new State Duma, the second of its kind, consisting of nearly one left.She remained dissatisfied, and only after three months of work, dissolved the Duma.
Strikes also continued regionally, but the power of the monarch at the time had been considerably strengthened.
Results of Revolution, 1905-1907
first revolution ended not so radical changes, which sought representatives of radical workers.Monarch remained in power.
However, the main outcome of the Russian revolution of 1905-1907 can be called significant and momentous.They not only have drawn a line of absolute power of the emperor, and forced millions to pay attention to the appalling state of the economy, technological progress belated and inadequate army of the Russian Empire as compared to other states.
Results revolution of 1905-1907 can be described briefly a few points.Each of them has become a symbol of victory over the power of the empire.Nicholas II was able to retain power in their hands, in fact, to lose the control of the army and navy.
the sum total of the Revolution 1905-1907: Table
Limit absolute monarchy
protect the rights of workers
workers were allowed to form trade unions, cooperatives, insurance companies, protecting their rights
Cancel forced Russification of the population
National Policy on people living in the RussianEmpire softened
give workers and peasants more freedom
Nicholas II signed a document on freedom of assembly, speech and conscience
Allow publication of alternative newspapers and magazines
was allowed printing "Union of October 17 »
improve working conditions
working day has been reduced to 8 hours
So you can briefly describe the events of 1905-1907.and their consequences.