Calandra Lark: description, nutrition, reproduction

Calandra Lark (dzhurbay) - a small bird, which is a remarkable singer.In doing so they in most cases painted gray clay dull tone.Distributed widely birds, mostly inhabiting open spaces: steppes and meadows, treeless slopes and semi-desert hills and mountains.They rarely sit on the branches of bushes and trees.The basis of their diet up in the summer mainly semi-ripe seeds of various grasses and insects.In the winter they feed on seeds.

Field signs

Calandra Lark - is large, the size of a starling bird.The figure of her massive, stocky.Attire "Zhavoronkova" on each side of the crop has a large black spot, sometimes they merge.Bottom slabopyatnisty bird, white.Wings broad with dark red lining, with the rear edge of the rim with light, take-off is especially noticeable.The beak is bright, thick.

Found in fields and steppes.Sometimes sings while sitting on a bush or on the ground, but mostly - flying at a height of 10 meters, gradually rises up, describing the arc.Song sonorous and complex.It heard a

resounding "chrrr" and whistler, clear "the clergy."He imitates the voices of some other birds: Barn Swallow, another lark, linnet, warbler-barsuchku, whistling gopher, herbalist, various other sounds.

Painting

Calandra Lark has a basic color brownish-gray hue.The rear of the neck, the shoulders and the front of the back feathers are dark and light nastvolyami buffy edges.

Dark nastvolya in nadhvoste very mild.Covering small wing greyish-brown color, large and medium - dark brown, the young re ocher or pale reddish edges.The ends of the secondary flight feathers with light, almost white spots.Steering extreme white bases with internal webs brown;on the edge of the second pair with a broad white edges, all the others - a small white spots;all secondary pair brown monochrome.

underparts are white birds.The side of the head grayish-brown hues;above the eyes there is a blond eyebrow.By and large black spot on each side of the crop.The main part of the chest and goiter with dark brown and grayish streaks.Gray side as underwings, only recently has the white border.Dark brown eyes are.Paws and beak pale brown.

Habitat

Calandra Lark herbivorous lives, as the name implies, in the open spaces of the steppe, which has a well-developed grass cover.

birds live in the following countries: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Algeria, Bulgaria, Afghanistan, Greece, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Egypt, Georgia, Jordan, Israel, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Spain, Cyprus, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Kyrgyzstan,Macedonia, Libya, Moldova, Morocco, Portugal, Palestine, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, Syria, Tunisia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Croatia, France, Montenegro.

Power

Like all other larks, in the summer Calandra Lark feeds exclusively on animal food.He feeds, quickly running through the land, and sklevyvaya all that it will fall on the grass and earth.Sometimes he takes wing and examines the tops of bushes.His large beak is often tightly plastered with mud.This is due to the fact that it produces from the soil small insect larvae.Beak it can also penetrate icy crust of snow, while from under it to produce grass seeds.

Calandra Lark omnivorous.He eats large insects - copra, locusts, ballad, etc.Of the rest of the insects are most likely to darkling beetles, weevils, kernels, leaf beetles, Olenka, grain beetles, as well as riders, flies, bees, wasps, ants and others.Moreover, the spiders - it's also a favorite treat bird Calandra Lark.Eating it, as we see, it is very flexible.More than the others, he eats orthopteran because their structure is more diverse.This eats little bugs, scarab, beetles, caterpillars and ants.

Reproduction

Current flight and singing lasted from March to mid-July.Thus the first masonry was marked by Zhdanov Borovikov in late March.Walls are also found until mid-June.

Like other larks, with suits under a bush grass in the pit, great shadows and masks.It is constructed of dried leaves and stems of grasses and thin roots.As usual, the core layer includes a thinner material.Periodically, it is located in the pile of horse manure dry.The clutch can be mainly 5 eggs, sometimes 6 pieces.Eggs are quite dark, greenish or off-white base color with a variety of olive or brownish, slightly blurred spots which are thickened to a blunt end.

One female incubates the eggs for sixteen days.This feeding of the nest lasts about ten days.

who left the newly found nest chicks from mid-May until July, when it appeared decent nomadic flocks that feed on the stubble, steppes, roads and rickety with the rest of larks.In late summer, there are huge flocks of birds - 200 species.Migrations thus continue until late autumn.Often, they add up to a real fall flight.These span the pack can also be found in the south of the area.The nomadic flocks in autumn is very noisy.At the same time in good weather larks sing and soar as the spring, with the song.

Molting

Adults larks, like the rest, molt occurs just once a year, around August.Chicks are underdeveloped feather cover, which replaced the first nest plumage, is replaced in turn by the fall of the first "adult" serious outfit.

number

Calandra Lark - a "landscape" mass bird.It inhabits in the region of one hundred meters from the steam vapors is not more than 2 pairs on 1 hectare.