Canadian Beaver: size, food, habitat and description.

Canadian beaver - a semi-aquatic mammal belonging to the order of rodents.They are the second-largest rodent.In addition, the Canadian beaver - the unofficial symbol of Canada.

Types beavers

At the moment there are two types of them: Canadian beaver, beaver (European).Between themselves, they are very similar, except that the first bit more.Once they spread across Europe, North America and Asia, but today the population has declined significantly.The blame for the man who arranged the hunting of these animals because of their fur and meat.

Differences between Canadian and European Beaver

two representative species look very similar, although the Eurasian is large.He more or less large round head, muzzle while shorter.Also, the tail already, and the undercoat is less.In addition, the Eurasian shorter limbs, therefore, he was a bad move on their hind legs.

Almost 70% of the ordinary beaver brown or light brown fur, 20% of it is brown, 8% have a dark brown color, and just 4% of black fur.Half of

Canadian beavers light brown skin tone, 25% of it is brown and 5% black shade.

In ordinary beaver nasal bones are much longer, and in the triangular shape of the nostrils, while Canadians have triangular openings.Europeans have anal glands larger.In addition, there are differences in color and fur.

After repeated attempts to cross the American and Eurasian female male, female or not pregnant, and gave birth to dead babies.Most likely, you can not cross-species breeding.Between these populations have not only territorial barrier, but also the difference in DNA.

addition to external differences in these two representatives of this family, there are differences in the number of chromosomes.So, Canadian beavers forty chromosomes from their normal chromosome number 48. Various is the reason for unsuccessful mating data from different continents.

Another difference beavers can be considered a disaster: Canadian beaver builds a dam does not, it creates a huge plotinischi compared with buildings of his brother from Europe.Such structures can be stretched to a length of several hundred meters.Because today, the Canadian beaver in Russia actively populate regions of their structures radically changing environment.As a result of a dam on the surrounding area caused flooding, and what's interesting: the smaller crossed terrain they inhabit, the greater their zone of influence!They change the fullness of the rivers with all the ensuing environmental problems.In addition, Canadian vandals "mow" located next to the forest, and they form the coastline and on the whole are the most important environmental factor.Also, beavers from nearby farms and state farms are stealing crops and there is rampant in every way.

Distribution

Canadian beaver is found in Alaska (in North America), except for the northern, northeastern and eastern coasts;In Canada;almost everywhere in the United States, in addition to Florida, the main part of Nevada and California;in the northern part of Mexico.It was also introduced by the countries of Scandinavia.From Finland entered the Leningrad region and Karelia.Was introduced in Sakhalin and Kamchatka, and in the Amur basin.

Lifestyle

His lifestyle is similar to that of Eurasian.Canadian Beaver is also active at night, but sometimes appears in the daytime and sometimes moves away from water.Pets wonderful dive and swim under water and can stay up to fifteen minutes.Beavers live in families of up to eight individuals - a pair of parent and her children.Juveniles stay with their parents up to two years.Families are always territorial and protect their land from the rest of the animals.

boundaries of the site are labeled beaver jet (secret anal glands), which is applied to mounds of mud and dirt.With the risk of sounding animals tail on the water, thus giving an alarm.As Eurasians, they live in huts which are built of sticks, smeared with mud and earth.From lodges are under water courses;in which the floor is covered bark, wood chips and grass.Canadian beaver lodges in burrows much less than its Eurasian counterpart.For the regulation of the flow rate and water level in the rivers, he builds a dam made of branches, logs, mud, stones, clay.Canadians for their outstanding construction capabilities.

Reproduction

Usually beavers live in families consisting of females and males, and the young and the previous year.The breeding season in most places - January-February.The offspring of the previous year, being in this time around the age of two years, banished from the colony to search for shelter elsewhere, as well as its pair.

The gestation period is 107 days, and male children temporarily moved into a special hole before the birth of offspring in the period from April to June.The act of birth comes a few days, basically, the light appears to 5 Beavers.Toddlers completely pubescent, they noticed cutters, eyes open.Just born, already bobryata quietly go into the water, because they can swim since its inception.The basic amount of adults monogamous couple can only dissolve with the death of a partner.

Power

Canadian or North American, beaver eating only vegetarian food.They feed these animals shoots and bark of trees selected willow, aspen, birch and poplar.In addition, eating and all sorts of herbaceous plants (a jug, water lilies, cattail, iris, reeds, etc., Just three hundred titles).A huge number of the soft species of trees - this is a necessary condition for their habitat.Linden, hazel, wild cherry, elm and other trees in their diet are of secondary importance.Oak and alder, they do not eat at the same time apply for their buildings.The daily amount of food makes up a fifth of the weight of the animal.Powerful bite and large teeth allow beavers to easily cope with solid foods plant.

During summer, beavers in the diet increased the proportion of grass feed.This fall they are engaged in preparation of feed in the cold.The reserves are put in the water, where they are able to February retain their valuable nutritional qualities.In order to feed into the ice freezes, heat a little beavers it under overhanging steep banks below the water level.So even after a freezing pond food remains available under the thick ice.

number

Canadian Beaver, unlike Eurasian, which was almost completely cut off, suffered much less.By the protected species, he does not belong;its population is about 15 million individuals, but before the start of the colonization of North America, there were more than ten times.These animals were hunted extensively for their meat and fur, which is the beginning of the nineteenth century led to a rapid reduction in their area.Then, thanks to the restoration and conservation activities, their total number has grown significantly.

man and beaver

To date, the Canadian beaver in some states is regarded as extremely harmful animals as these animals built the dam led to flooding of the area.However, their construction activities are able to completely destroy the vegetation along the banks.Although in general the beavers have a good effect on riparian and aquatic habitats, creating conditions for the prosperity of different organisms.

beaver is Canada's national animal.He is depicted on coins of 5 cents.In addition, he is a symbol of New York and Oregon, and is depicted on the posters California and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Coat: Canadian beaver

This coat has long been appreciated in Russia.This is extremely fluffy, soft and very warm fur.With the unique undercoat, it is ideally suited to the Russian climate conditions and is able to save you from any bad weather.Such a coat of quality socks (it is considered one of the main criteria in the hierarchy of valuable furs) surpasses even burrow.In addition, the beaver is not afraid of moisture, and it is among the fur is a huge rarity.It is also under wet snow only gets fluffy.

This fur is not the easiest.Exclusive and, therefore, considered to be the most expensive pinched fur.Technology vyschipa a jewelry-consuming process, which greatly increases the value of fur, while making it particularly airy and light.The paper used only whole skins of young animals.For each product colors chosen individually.Sometimes it can take a year.Although the result of this, it becomes a real picture of a harmonious color palette, natural iridescent shades from light to dark.

Interesting facts

  • While bathing flat beaver tail is a real animal oar.
  • Beaver is considered the second largest (after the capybara) of rodents living now.
  • When emergency loudly slaps its tail on the water in order to prevent their relatives.
  • The animal has webbed feet, which makes it an excellent swimmer.
  • Underwater beaver can remain for fifteen minutes.