Oil - the major energy commodities.However, oil reserves are not infinite.Therefore, the consumption of "black gold" in this direction is planned to limit by opting for other sources of energy (solar, nuclear).But to reduce its consumption in other industries is not yet possible.
In 1992, the Russian oil industry is based in the two oil-producing regions.Western Siberia gave about 70% of raw materials, even 20% is supplied Volga-Urals region, while the remaining 5% was allowed Sakhalin, Kaliningrad region and the North Caucasus.
Russia's oil industry has developed in the Soviet era, as well as the entire economy, uneven.The first crisis came in 1977, when the volume of crude oil in Western Siberia decreased sharply.This is due to ill-considered conduct prospecting activities.For example, in the 70 years of the Soviet era strongly increase volumes of drilling, but drilling exploration frozen.The decline in oil production lasted almost nine years.Samotlor (larger) field production decreased by 20 mil
cause of the next crisis was the failure of the oil industry to improve productivity.The problem was solved typical Soviet "an emergency" measures: the huge influx of labor and capital.Since 1986, the drop in production was stopped and in 1988 the oil industry in Russia captures a record 570 million tons.
Again - recession.1994 - production falls by 44% in 1995 - a simple 22 000 of the 140 wells 000. deteriorating structure of the oil.This crisis gets a sequel, giving rise to the increase in energy prices (despite the extremely low quality of the product).Accordingly, the price began to rise on virtually all the goods, and this in turn has reduced the demand on the domestic market.
Russian oil industry demanded structuring.The first step was ON (production association), organized at the direction of government in Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk, Nefteyugansk, Urai.Each software were united all kinds of works in the secured area and the search and exploration, and production and processing, and transportation, and even repairs.The structure of the software included and institutions (research).The ice was broken - this approach has yielded positive results.We began to create a vertically integrated oil companies operating on the principle "from exploration to gas stations", a typical structure of which included, among other things, drilling companies and sales organizations.
prerogative of the Ministry, which became first Rosneftegaz, and then the Ministry of Energy, was the transportation of oil and its products, which soon was transferred Transnefteprodukt and Transneft.Russia's oil industry has opened a new breath.At present, it includes more than one million people.
Today Russian oil and gas industry is a major source of foreign exchange earnings of the state.Basic income provides energy exports in the former Soviet republics (CIS), and in the future (Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Netherlands, Slovakia, Poland, Switzerland, UK).Export opportunities is constrained by a capacity transport systems.
Freer was "breathing" and the internal market with relatively low domestic prices.For example, Russian gas is significantly cheaper than their foreign counterparts.Thanks to the oil supply for the needs of the state, the company sells a certain amount of oil through the well-fixed prices.