What is a tongue twister?

Currently, quite often in the classroom in the elementary school teachers use patters.Some training programs for the genre of folk art allotted a certain number of hours.Undoubtedly, an experienced teacher may available to explain to children what a tongue twister, to reveal its features to explain the differences and similarities with other genres of folk art.But curriculum is not taken into account such an important time, as the story of the emergence of tongue twisters.This topic is very important, but unfortunately, historical information on this topic a little bit.

What patter

works of this genre are particularly fascinating phenomenon that can be found in children's and adult literature.However, not all may be available to explain what patter.I'm sure many will remember how thrilling magic words in texts such as the following: "Went through the Greek river, sees the Greeks in the river - cancer.Greek stuck his hand into the river, the cancer arm Grecu - DAC! ".In this case it represents one

of the variations of the tongue twisters, which can be found a huge amount.

Origin twisters

If we look at collections of folklore, it can be seen that the tongue twisters are presented in a bit.This is especially noticeable when compared with the amount of, for example, proverbs, riddles or works of other genres of folk art.Not even every source can find the definition of the concept of "patter".On the basis of a certain number of texts about the origin of tongue twisters, we can conclude that they were a long time ago, but the exact time is not specified in either the source.

first meeting twisters

In 1862 Dal first published in patters textbook work.In a separate section, he clearly explained what patter, and published a whole collection of writings on the subject.The merit Dal was also in the fact that he made the first attempts to systematize works of this genre of folk art.He singled out for a specific scientific term twisters.By the way, entertaining, and the fact that, compared with riddles and proverbs, which was noted more than thirty thousand, tongue twisters, he cited only forty-nine.Quantitative indicators are significantly different that catches the eye.It is interesting to note that most of the twisters was not designed for the child's perception, rather, for an adult of their meaning.Noted forty nine twisters only five can be attributed to the "child" category.

definition of tongue twisters for Dal

Dal put a special meaning in the interpretation of tongue twisters.For the development of the speech apparatus, in his opinion, it should be required to include such texts in the curriculum.The need to use tongue twisters for the development of speech Dal substantiated by the fact that they can be used to exercise the children in rapid pronunciation.Attention should be paid not only on the pace of pronunciation, but also the purity of.It was noted that there patter sounds that can "encounter" with each other.It is intended to hinder the pronunciation.Very often the meaning patters includes proverb.For example, in patter "report, but not doraportoval and became doraportovyvat, zaraportovalsya" said that everything is not as it should, that is unfortunate and out of place.

Variety twisters

If you analyze all twisters that gathered in his writings Dal, one can immediately notice that their range is quite wide.They are classified according to various criteria.For example, in size they may be long and short.A separate group of marked products with or without repeats.There are also funny patter.For speech, depending on the construction work can be used on one or on several sound.Such texts are often used by speech therapists and educators voice groups of preschool institutions for work with children who need to work out the statement of a certain sound.Depending on the capabilities of shared work perception that appeal to children, and those available children's understanding, i.e. complex patters.

twisters similarity with other genres of folk art

the study of tongue-twisters as a full genre of folk art, it was concluded that in terms of content and structure, they are similar to some other species of folk art.For example, the analysis identified common features between patters and proverbs.Also, similarities have been noted and sayings.With careful consideration of jokes and it was noted that the work of these genres overlap with each other.The above findings were made on the basis of a comparison of works by Dahl and J. Snegireva.Some texts from the collection of J. Snegireva like a tongue twister, which are represented in the works of Dahl.

edition of the original tongue twisters

After V. Dahl published his works, for quite a long time no one took up this work.And only in the early twentieth century in some editions of gradually began to appear unusual works of this genre of folk art.For example, We would like to mention a valuable contribution to the field of literature the biggest connoisseur of folklore Prikamye B. Serebryannikova pre-revolutionary times.After some time, in 1964, more than thirty texts of this genre were collected under one cover.If we look at the second half of the twentieth century, the most important figures in the genre were V. Anikin, M. Bulatov, A. Razumov N. Kolpakov.We would like to highlight, among other authors G. Naumenko, who published a collection of large-format on folklore.There were collected exclusively Russian tongue twisters.Fruitful activity in the field of tongue twisters are characterized by the works of authors such as Vladimir Biryukov, Friedrich I., A. Anisimov, AM Nowicka and others.

Copyright patters

In the twentieth century, it was noted a very interesting phenomenon - appeared copyrights Russian tongue twisters.But it is worth noting that among those initially was found only one piece of this genre D. Harms called "Ivan Toporyshkin."Among the numerous publications in children's books and magazines Detgiz most of twisters were marked as folk.The experts who were involved in writing the genre folklore, recorded them as a work of folk art.However, through the work of V. Lunin titled "Mysteries.Tongue Twisters ", published in 1999, was able to confirm the authorship of many tongue twisters that were considered to a certain property of the people.For example, the author of the famous tongue twister of a cuckoo, cuckoo, and the hood is Ivan Demyanov.V. Lunin dedicated a separate section of the subject of his book.Analyzing the information that is presented in the section, you can find a lot of people's tongue twisters, which coincide with the author's text.Currently, some tongue twisters in the collections are presented with the name of a specific author, and there are those who still published as folk.

Meaning of tongue twisters for the development of speech

really like children funny patter.But regardless of the species, all of them are useful for all-round development.If you highlight the main purpose of tongue twisters, it will be the improvement of speech.For the development of speech useful to use different characteristics patters.For diction, for example, are perfect texts in one or more sounds.It is useful to use such compositions for the formation of an expressive, clear and meaningful speech.Tongue twisters children are irreplaceable in terms of securing a proper understanding of the skill sense.They teach children to memorize the meaning of what he heard.When memorizing tongue twisters are frequent errors in pronunciation, but do not treat them with conviction.On the contrary, you can laugh with your child about how he got interested Pronounce.

Technique lessons on learning the tongue twisters

Once you clearly understand what a tongue twister, you can start planning and organizing a series of activities with the use of the texts of this genre.To memorization was the most effective, it is necessary to adhere to a number of specific rules.It should develop children's interest in such pursuits and the desire to do it.At the beginning of the lesson should say slowly patter with the arrangement.Then you need to repeat the tongue twister in a whisper, but so that all the sounds in the words were clearly audible.Do not rush in of pronunciation.The next step will be loud pronunciation.Note that every sound was uttered by the most clearly.Only after the text was uttered softly and loudly, you can gradually begin to pronunciation at a rapid pace.Clarity and legibility are the main rules to be followed for memorizing a particular patter.For diction, for example, pronounce the useful product with a different intonation.Training must continue as long as all the sounds are not pronounced correctly and legibly.The last step will be learning the pronunciation of the text without stammering.

ways to work with children patters

There are many interesting and entertaining forms of organization of activities for children to study and memorize tongue twisters.For example, many children like to teach tongue twisters as follows: adult gives the ball into the hands of a child.On every syllable or word at the request of the children throw the ball and clearly recite the text.This method is interesting for the presence element with game ball.As a rule, children are able to train for a long time in this way.Alternatively, you can offer your child to pronounce the text, while throwing the ball from one hand to another.Similarly, we can organize classes without the ball.In this case, you can pronounce the text under the rhythm of clapping her hands.When memorizing tongue twisters can offer the child to perform a certain condition, "Speak, not having lost 5 straight tongue twisters."That'll teach him to work on the result.After some time, you can ask the child to repeat these tongue twisters 5 again to secure the skill.Adults would like to strongly recommend to conduct classes with children memorize twisters regularly.Systematic exercises in the correct pronunciation will contribute to the formation of the vocal apparatus, as well as the full development of the child's personality.