preceded by the epoch of Peter the Russian history left a lot of unresolved issues, and one of them - it is landlocked, seriously hampers the development of the Russian state.Moscow Russia had always been a bitter struggle over the ownership of the southern expanse.The development of any state depends on the possibility of entering the world trade arena and the ability to conduct a competent foreign policy.The lack of direct access to the sea deprived Russia of enormous potential.
reasons for trips to the Azov
urgent need to further growth of the state arose at the turn of the century, marked by the rule of the great reformer Peter 1, becoming the main task of strengthening the internal unity of the country, strengthening its military power and the increase of global importance.Finding ways to enter the world political arena led to the inevitability of the southern campaign, which was called Azov campaigns of Peter 1. Briefly describe the other reasons for their occurrence.
Historians claim that
began in the 1670s war with Turkey and the Crimea Russia acted as a part of the strongest states - members of the Christian Coalition.In the 1690s Russia's allies - Poland and Austria - have signed an agreement with Turkey on the conditions of the world, excluding the Russian interests - so says the story.Peter demanded the cessation of the raids and the possibility of free swimming Russian fleet in the Azov and Black Seas.They are challenged by the Turks for several years.The negotiations dragged on until 1694.Then Peter 1 decided to achieve the conditions by force of arms.
The main objective was the fortress of Azov, located at the mouth of the Don and locking access to the Black Sea.Take it opened up Russia access to the sea, made it possible to build the Navy and the establishment of an outpost for further hostilities.Years Azov campaigns of Peter 1 was a watershed in the country's history.
plans first campaign
with characteristic courage and youthful age maximalism young emperor at the beginning of 1695 announced a hike in the Crimea.It was the first Azov campaign of Peter 1. In order to disorient and distract the enemy from Azov in Moscow was declared a collection of warriors who are going to march to the lower reaches of the Dnieper under the BP Sheremetyev.At the same time, secretly formed the thirty Azov army, consisting of the top three divisions under the command of generals Lefort, Gordon, Golovin, having armed with more than 100 mortars and 40 arquebuses.
The emperor himself was listed as the army scorer Peter Alexeyev.The command of the troops were not concentrated in the same hands.Important issues were dealt with at the council and approved by Peter 1.
first outing on the Azov
Azov campaigns of Peter 1 began in 1695.In the spring of ten thousand vanguard division of Gordon, focusing in Tambov, he marched on Azov.He went to the wilderness of Cherkassy, where he was joined by Don Cossacks.Fortress Azov, located on the left bank of the Don, not far from its mouth, is a magnificent fortified citadel from all sides.
In late June, Gordon reached the ultimate goal and encamped near the fort.For the landing of the main forces of Azov above the river, he built Mytishevuyu Kaysugi marina.At the same time the main forces reached the rivers Moscow, Volga and Oka to Tsaritsyn, then overland to Panshin, followed again by Don to Azov, are dispersed who in early July, is located south of the fortress, stretching out to the river Kagalnik.Siege Park and ammunition were temporarily stored at Mytishevoy marina, which has become a kind of base from which the projectile has been launched to supply the army.
The siege of the troops advanced Gordon in early July with a strong bombardment of the fortress, in which its walls were severely damaged.But the besieged city from the land held by revenues from the sea of food and ammunition.Russian ground troops, had a strong fleet and prevent the enemy could not, why not bring the siege proper effect.The Turks, supported by the cavalry of the Crimean Tatars, who fought behind the walls of the citadel, made frequent forays.
the night of 20 July, several units of the army of Peter I crossed to the right bank of the Don and the main, building fortifications and armed soldiers with artillery, were able to fire the city from the north.As close to the ramparts, the Russian troops began the assault on August 5.Azov persevered.The siege lasted a long time, it was decided to repeat the assault.Breaking into the city through a small collapse of a mine explosion, the soldiers Gordon were crushed by Turkish troops.Attack again failed, the Turks forced Russian troops to the general retreat.Azov campaigns of Peter 1, in particular, the first of them, revealed errors and failures in the command and management of the state of siege battle.
Distressed setbacks and heavy losses, Peter gave a decision on the termination of the siege: September 28 began to disarm the battery, and on October 2 all the troops went to Moscow.
actions undertaken on the Dnieper Sheremetyeva several offset the bitterness of defeat in the Azov campaign.He possessed two fortresses, destroyed by the Turks abandoned the citadel.Although the failure of the main direction of the fighting forced the young emperor to delay the army to the borders of Sheremetyev, his contribution in the Azov campaigns of Peter 1 was considerable.
Preparations for the new campaign
Realizing the importance of achieving the objectives and analyzing the reasons for the failures, Peter 1 began training for the next march south.He realized that the basis of the failure of this campaign was the lack of the fleet and the successful conduct of hostilities is possible only in a single interaction of the land army and military fleet, the ability to block approaches to the Azov sea, thus depriving it of replenishment via the outside.Peter the Great, during whose reign were full of great events, ordered to start the construction of ships in the Transfiguration and Voronezh, he headed the construction.
parallel regiments formed a new army of Azov, partially reinforced by the forces Sheremetev set of civilian citizens and call for the Cossacks.To make up for the lack of military engineering staff Peter addressed to the heads of allied states, Poland and Austria.
second trek south
Azov campaigns of Peter 1 continued.In the spring of 1696 an army under the command of Generalissimo A. Shein, consisting of the divisions of generals Gordon Golovin and Regemana total population of 75 thousand people have been prepared for the Second Azov campaign.During the winter, we build a fleet, which took command of Lefort.It consisted of 2 ships, 23 galleys and 4 fire-ships.1 Peter designated collection point for the army Voronezh, where the bulk of the troops planned to send to the Azov by land, and artillery, and the remaining connection to carry the water.Infantry issued from Moscow, the 8th of March and the end of the month, focusing in Voronezh, has started the loading of ships at the end of which the head of the army went to the fortress.
19 May leading the division landed at Gordon Novosergievskaya, slightly above Azov.The main train control the movement of Russian ships standing in the roads of the Turkish fleet.After several clashes forcing the Turks did not dare to speak with troops to reinforce the city.Their squadron put to sea without doing anything for the salvation of the citadel.The garrison did not expect to re-siege.Using this omission, coming up to the beginning of June the Russian troops strengthened the camp, occupied entirely preserved approaches and started installing artillery.
siege of the fortress
second siege of Azov, Peter I had done much more successfully.Although Tatars scattered across the steppe, periodically attacked the besiegers, but the garrison of Azov, isolated from the outside world, defended not very active.Directed bulwarks Generalissimo Shein.Ships of Peter the Great were on the roads, he was at sea, and only occasionally slid ashore to monitor the progress of hostilities.
two-week bombardment of the citadel, which began in mid-June, has not brought the desired results - the ramparts and walls have not received serious damage.Then it was found unusual, but effective solution: build higher than the land, the shaft, move it to the wall and covered ditch begin the assault.It was a gigantic task.Every day, it takes 15 thousand people: two shafts were built at the same time, the appearance was intended to set the artillery.Arriving in the Austrian army of specialists - engineers, sappers and artillery directs the work, using the latest methods of military engineering of the time.
Capture of Azov Peter 1 in 1696
Capture of Azov happened quickly: in the middle of July, tired from a long siege, the Cossacks with the Don Cossacks made a surprise attack on the citadel and immediately captured the part of the rampart, forced the Turks to retreat.This success has decided the final outcome of the war.Thus ended the Azov campaigns of Peter 1. briefly and powerfully repulsed several unsuccessful counterattacks, Russian connections offered to surrender.The besieged Turks began negotiating the terms of surrender.July 19 Peter joined the army Azov.
difficult to overestimate the significance of this victory for Russia and most of the young king, who began the reign of the country with the triumph that brought the Azov campaigns of Peter 1. Table comparing the historical events of both campaigns indicates how quickly the Emperor analyze and evaluate errors as they ingeniously corrected.