Human activities in the past, his view of the world, role in society - all this is a matter of studying the humanities history.It is based on documents and traces of the missing periods, explains the life of previous generations.
Increasingly sounding question: "Was the yoke?"
And what to do when certain tracks, but there is only mention of them in the records, the data which have always been questioned?How many generations have studied in the schools of the Mongol-Tatar yoke!Now, not only because of the historical science in general has been removed and replaced with the term phrase "Golden Horde", but contested everything that is connected with this phenomenon.Even asked: "And even if it undertook trips to Russia?" And are pretty conclusive evidence that is taken.However, many people from the school are confident that 200 years Russia was under the yoke, and the "shortcut to reign" khans of the Golden Horde Russian princes were given.But somehow none of them did not survive.
document known first
This kind of documents as they existed at all, only know from the chronicles.However, in the later works of literature and art of the fact of traveling to pay homage to the Horde khans repeatedly described.Artist Boris Chorikov (1802-1866), known as the illustrator of "History of Russia" Karamzin drew feud Russian princes, arranged them in front of satisfied Khan, for the right to obtain a "shortcut to reign."What is this document?What made the princes with rich gifts "walk" to the court of the Tartar Khan?It was a permit issued by the governor of the Jochi Ulus or Golden Horde, a powerful state with a huge army, which if necessary sabers confirms the strength of this decree.Khan received gifts, allowed had brought them to rule in a certain inheritance, even if at that time there sat a prince.Khan, like a cunning eastern policy, skillfully used the "shortcut to reign" to bleed county princes.Thus, controlled by Russia has not been able to unite for joint resistance to the Horde.As a result of this policy Khans specific rulers declared war on each other, weakening Russia crushed.
dependence of Russia
So it is possible, because in the years 1237-1242 was undertaken by the Mongols invasion of Russia.It is very interesting that nowhere in the national literature uses the term "yoke".And why it was necessary to adopt "a word", first used by Polish chronicler Jan Dolgushev, knowing that this country can distort any fact, just to annoy or humiliate Russia.Yes, and it was applied in the late XV century, when the so-called "oppression" and not a trace.After the Tartar invasion of our country has been put in vassalage - tributary and political.The idea of issuing "a shortcut to rule" was born, obviously, in the rate of Khan, because the first trip, and all subsequent, begins with a call to the court of the prince.
first prince being labeled
Prince Vladimir and Suzdal Yuri Vsevolodovich died at the walls of the legendary Kitezh in Harakorum, the capital of the Mongol Empire, was called his brother Jaroslaw.His first trip is considered very successful and even called a diplomatic success.The first label to reign it was he, the father of Alexander Nevsky.During the second visit of the Horde he was poisoned regent Turashnoy widow Kaan Ugedei.She immediately called on the court of Alexander, perhaps with the same intent to kill.But for various reasons, the Prince of Novgorod 4 years did not appear in the Horde.Samu poisoner suffered the same fate - two months after the ascent to the throne of her son, she was put to death in the same way.At the court of Batu Khan are still raging passion.
Intrigues and intrigue
ride in the khan's headquarters it was necessary, because only the prince who receives a shortcut to reign, was regarded as a legitimate ruler.And it was not just the great princes, but also specific.Hesitated to ride the legitimately elected prince of Kiev Svyatoslav deposed his brother Michael.Why is this diploma was so desirable?First, during a tribute to the Mongols came to Russia.But the beginning of popular unrest, particularly in Novgorod.Horde preferred to govern principalities afar and therefore shifted the levying of tribute to the princes themselves.That is the place the prince was more than bread - a tribute will be charged much more than was given to the Horde.The prince received a shortcut to rule significantly multiply their wealth.That is why the wicked and hurried to bypass the legitimate rulers of the fall at the feet of the Khan, who was regarded as the supreme ruler of Russia.Round trip was costly and long-lasting.So, crafty politician Ivan Kalita most of the time his reign had the Horde and the road getting there and there.The grandson of Alexander Nevsky Prince of Moscow Yuri Danilovich III lived in at 2 years old, married the sister of the Khan, thus earning the label on the great reign.
beautiful, powerful, disappeared
According to the stories the label was a gold plate, the edges of which are rounded.In it there was a hole for hanging.More than strange that not a single gold label.Made of precious metals, are not affected by time, in the history of Russia plays a huge role - and disappeared.Labels were issued and the clergy.All of them have disappeared in large quantities.The trouble of ancient Russia was that the rulers usually had many sons, and large territorial units crushed between them, turning into small fiefdoms.He appeared sensible policies that united them for a while, and then all repeated.So, at the beginning of the XIII century in Russia in addition to a number of small, there were two major principality - Vladimir and Kiev, the first was much more powerful and larger in the second.Therefore, to obtain a label on the great reign of Vladimir was a cherished dream of many princes, including the Alexander Nevsky.He finally got to the Horde along with his brother Andrew and received permission to Kyiv table, what was very offended.