Paleolit- what's this?

Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic - the three great cultural and historical period of the Stone Age.It got its name due to the fact that the weapons in those days made only of stone, and only towards the end of the century began to be used bone and wood.Stone Age lasted for more than one hundred thousand years.But even now, thanks to the numerous historical and archaeological discoveries, we can learn at least the main points of the life of primitive people at the dawn of human civilization.

What Paleolithic?

ancient history of mankind - this is the era of the Paleolithic, the longest period of the Stone Age, which began more than 2.5 million years ago.Its main feature - is the evolution of humans from animal to primitive society.Very relevant is the emergence and development of speech.The Paleolithic is divided into three stages: early, middle and late.

Early Paleolithic

This is the first and longest stage.Home Paleolithic associated with the emergence of the first ape-man - archanthropine

s.They did not have the highest growth (1.5 - 1.8 m), were characteristic distinct eyebrows and receding chin.As used animal skins clothes, lived in caves and, according to many scientists, is actively practiced cannibalism.The main feature of the early Paleolithic stone is the beginning of the use of improvised weapons.They were made by cutting from one another all the excess stone with a view to form a peeling or cutting edge.Gradually manufacturing technology improved, and there were hand-axes and the so-called drill - tools with which dug up roots, or cut down trees.Another significant evolutionary step early Paleolithic is the use of fire.Traces of ancient hearths age 1.5 million. Years were found on terrritorii Africa and Asia.But at this stage of the ancient man could only keep the fire of its own has not yet mined.

Middle Paleolithic

At that time, the prevailing view is still the Homo erectus, and its evolution continues.In Africa, about 200-300 thousand. Years ago, a new type, which is the volume of the brain was close to modern man - a Neanderthal.They are distinguished by a tall and very strong muscular physique, which gave them considerable physical strength.Middle Paleolithic - this is the era of survival, as the Neanderthals lived, perhaps, in the most severe climatic conditions - in the Ice Age.

helped to survive that people have learned to produce their own fire yourself by punching.It was opened, most likely by accident in the manufacture of another sharp stone tools.At the same time there are the first spears and knives, arrowheads and scrapers for treating animal skins.Develop social structure, people live in large groups, caring for the elderly.Emerging art in the form of cave paintings depicting hunting or very often women, which can be regarded as a prerequisite for matriarchy.

Late Paleolithic

This is the period when a man appeared, resembling modern - Cro-Magnon man, named it in honor of the Cro-Magnon cave in which his remains were found.Cro-Magnon phenotype resembles modern humans: a high forehead, pronounced chin, smaller muscles, motor development arms, allowing to make advanced weapons for hunting and daily life.The main material is still - stone.During the Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic (Early) appeared first semblance of boats.This was preceded by the production of the first rafts of logs or dry bars.From bones made needle, the progenitor of modern, used them for making clothes, weaving wicker baskets.Actively developed primitive art: figurines of mammoth tusks and bones, rock paintings.Paleolithic to later stage marked the beginning of the domestication of wild animals, the first, as we know, it has become a dog.Time Cro-Magnons were determined by the solar and lunar calendars.Primitive society is gradually being replaced matriarchal clan community.Production of the first clay figurines characterizes the Paleolithic.The Neolithic is marked by the appearance of the first pottery.

Mesolithic

This era begins after the end of the last ice age.This segment of scientists and historians has a questionable nature.It is expressed most strongly in the north of present-day Europe.During this period, weapons have continued to improve, there were a bow and arrow.People domesticated wild animals, buffalo, horses, cows.The Company is developing, and there are the first rules of conduct rules.Mesolithic is characterized by the further development of speech.

Neolithic

If Paleolithic - a period of active hunting, fishing and gathering, one of the main events of the Neolithic - the transition to a producing economy: agriculture and animal husbandry.People have become more attached to one place, began to appear the first houses, huts and even cities.Clay was used for the manufacture of glassware and art.

Neolithic, as well as the Paleolithic is divided into early, middle and late periods.And each of them is not uniform, either in one and the same time, different culture entered at each step at different times.Even then, high development could boast, for example, the territory of modern China.

Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic - a milestone in human evolution as a species.For thousands of years, he had to fight for the nature of its place in the sun.One type is replaced by another, improved tools, I was commissioned by the herd characteristic of the animals to the primitive communities was conceived art.