In the central part of the Eurasian continent, between the mouths of the Yenisei Khatanga and far into the ice of the Arctic Ocean severe impressive projection of land extends Taimyr Peninsula (map given in this article shows its location).Its continuation is encased in eternal ice Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, from the point at which the (Arctic Cape) to pole distance is just 960 kilometers.Taimyr Peninsula is washed by the Laptev Sea and Kara.Here is the northern tip of the continent - Cape Chelyuskin.
Not every modern schoolchild knows where the Taimyr Peninsula, and it is no wonder, its location is not conducive to the inflow of tourists.This is a very rough country, where even in summer the temperature does not rise above ten degrees Celsius.The peninsula is located within the National District Taimyr Peninsula in the Krasnoyarsk region.As mentioned above, his extreme northern point - it is Cape Chelyuskin.South boundary is the northern promontory of the Central Siberian Plateau.
history of development
quite fascinating history of the development of the Taimyr Peninsula.The conquerors and explorers of the North ... How many legendary and at times tragic events hidden behind these concise terse words!The first Russian explorers of Taimyr in the seventeenth century became daredevils who came here in search of furs - "soft junk."So in 1667 in the northern part of the Yenisei there is a modest settlement called Dudinka.Today it is the capital of the vast National District Taimyr.In the eighteenth century in this region it is organized by the Great Northern Expedition.It is associated with the names of many great men - Fyodor Minin, Semyon Chelyuskin, Laptev brothers, Basil Pronchishchev and many others.And a hundred years on this earth walked the great naturalist Middendorf AF Later, off the coast of the peninsula have visited other, lesser-known Arctic explorers: Nansen, E. Toll, A. Nordenskiöld.
In the era of the Soviet state study of the Arctic began to gain new momentum.So, in 1918, near the northern coast of the peninsula wintered another polar explorer - the legendary R. Amundsen.In addition, he admires their exploits and Russian explorer, which at one time was called "a legend" - N. Begichev.The northernmost peninsula of Russia owes a lot to this intrepid man.Many significant events connected with his name.For example, he discovered in the Gulf of Khatanga unknown island, which was named after him, took an active part in the Arctic expeditions, not just saved them from destruction.Selflessly sought tragically lost Arctic explorers.And he was buried in the earth.In the early thirties polar explorers Urvantsev NN and GA Ushakov first entered the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, and produced a detailed description.
Relief Taimyr Peninsula
The entire length of the peninsula stretches the huge mountain range Byrranga.He formed en echelon system or parallel circuits, as well as the vast undulating plateaus.Byrranga mountains stretch for 1,100 km, their width is more than 200 kilometers.Leaking here Taimyr and river valleys Pyasina their shared mountain range into three parts: the east, with altitudes of 600-1146 meters;central, dominant - 400-600 m;West - 250-320 meters.The ridge is composed of Paleozoic rocks and Precambrian age, among them a large role traps - this igneous rocks that are stacked in the form of steps.
Climatic features of the Taimyr Peninsula
climate in the mountains of Taimyr very cold, sharply continental.Thus, the average temperature in January is minus 30-33 degrees Celsius, and in July - plus 10.2.Spring begins in mid-June, and in August the average daily temperature falls below zero.Rainfall in Taimyr falls from 120 to 140 mm per year.The eastern part of the peninsula is entirely covered by a glacier, a total area of 50 square kilometers.The mountains are mainly covered with vegetation, which is characteristic of a rocky Arctic tundra - is dominated by lichens and mosses.
This body of water connected to the river Taimyr.Lake divides it into two parts - on the bottom (187 kilometers) and upper (567 kilometers).The location of this water body is very unique, because it is far above the Arctic Circle.Lake Taimyr is the most northerly in the world this big lake.It is located at the foot of the mountains Byrranga, the extreme point of it were located at 76 degrees north latitude.Since the end of September until June the lake is covered with ice.The water temperature in summer rises to plus eight degrees, and in winter - a little above zero.
Considering the Taimyr Peninsula on the map, you can see that near its shores are numerous small islands.Some of them have low-lying terrain, and some, on the contrary, is high.The islands have a round shape, their coast is rocky and steep, some are small glaciers.Taimyr Peninsula also has a steep bank of seats, falling into the sea washes them, and in some places - on the contrary - the lowland and sloping, although far from their towering mountain ranges, consisting of horizontal layers of sedimentary rock.Eastern Cape Chelyuskin to the coast adjacent mountainous country.Then extend a considerable distance lowlands, and then returns a mountainous country with flat and low-lying coasts.The sea washing the Taimyr, shallow, sometimes there occur fairly extensive shallows.From July to August, it is available for shipping, despite the fact that here there stamuki - a single ice blocks;large and small hummocks ice fields.In ancient times the area of the peninsula was under water.This is evidenced by sea shells found near the river Middendorf Lower Taimyr.Currently, these clams live in the waters of the Arctic Ocean.The northernmost tip of the Taimyr Peninsula is covered with snow almost all year round.Summer lasts less than six weeks, and during this period happen snowstorms.
Taimyr Peninsula is a national nature reserve.He created in 1979 the Resolution of the SM of the RSFSR, but because of organizational difficulties only began to function in 1985.The reserve has a cluster system consists of several parts - Hataganskogo buffer zone area, the main tundra area (Dickson and Hatagansky areas), as well as parts of "Arctic", "Lukunsky" and "Ary-Mas".Its territory includes more than four degrees latitude, it is represented by zones of forest-tundra, alpine tundra, mountain range Byrranga, sub-Arctic, typical of the southern plains and tundra, as well as sea water area of the Gulf of the Laptev Sea.
main purpose of the organization was to preserve Taimyr Nature Reserve, as well as the study of the natural mountain and lowland ecosystems and the most northerly in the world in the areas of forests "Lukunsky" and "Ary-Mas".In addition, special attention is paid to the protection of our country's endemic - Red-breasted Goose - and the world's largest population of wild reindeer.More recently, in 1995, with the assistance of the UNESCO MAB Reserve Taimyr given the status of a biosphere.There is a museum of nature and ethnography.Anyone can get acquainted with a collection of everyday objects and the indigenous culture of the territory, as well as exhibitions devoted to the nature of the peninsula, there is a paleontological collection.