Prepositions, conjunctions, particles spelling

prepositions, conjunctions, particles do not refer to independent, and to service the parts of speech.This means they are not themselves able to call any objects or properties, or states, or actions.Without them, they can do proposals, while they themselves, without the involvement of independent parts of speech, can not form a sentence.However, the role of function words in speech should not be underestimated: prepositions, conjunctions and particles are necessary in order to express the meaning and formal relationship between the independent words within sentences.Tools of the speech itself will never play the role of the sentence.

morphological features

All unions, particles, prepositions have their own morphological features.The only common their morphological characteristics could be called the immutability.Now let's consider each of these parts of speech service detail.


Union, the particle is connected (the first) and add the words shades of meaning (second).The task of the pr

eposition in a sentence or phrase - to link the words to the correct grammatical structure.For example, I go to school, play the piano, jumped over the fence, was engaged in during the year, etc.

The composition of prepositions are of three types.

  • simple: on, to, under, over, for, prior to, at, before, after, and others.
  • Complex: from beneath due et al.
  • Compound: because duringdespite, and in relation to others.

in origin and method of formation of the pretexts are derivatives, ie, emerged from other parts of speech and non-derivative.

  • Derived prepositions can be formed from adverbs: around, along, near, and others.
  • they may be of the names of parts of speech: for, against, what about the expense, due, etc..
  • Happen they mayverbs: due later, including others.

Fusion or separately?

Spelling prepositions, conjunctions and particles are usually reduced to together, separate or writing with a hyphen.

  • Fusion write the following excuses:

along, defiance, since, like, instead, as a result, about through.

  • Separately write prepositions:

for, finally, in the sequel, in order, in effect, at least for a reason.

  • hyphenated writing excuses:

because, from the on-over.

semantic relationships

What is the relationship between the momentous words can express prepositions?Unions and particles, we note, too, have their official values, which describe below.

prepositions express these values:

  • object: miss on you think about us stood for him at the meeting;
  • spatial: left for the country, pass about theater will live on Alaska;
  • time: I go through week'll find during the day; during the week poured heavy rains;
  • target: to fight for idea live sake of truth, to give memory;
  • reasons: not to fall because of bad weather, thanks to found friends behind because disease;
  • attributive: pants in strip simulator with timer with fur coat;
  • comparative: size with nail, person came in mother, character - in father;
  • course of action: to laugh through power to think voltage watch without much interest.

How to distinguish excuses from other parts of speech?

Sometimes auxiliary part of speech - prepositions, conjunctions, particle - may be incorrectly recognized as an independent.However, there are methods by which you can clearly differentiate between them.

  • Not to be confused with preposition adverb, you must ensure that it is followed by a noun or pronoun.Compare: around vases with jam flying bee / vase with jam stood on the table, a bee flying around.
  • about the differences between the combination of the preposition noun with a preposition ending beep.The pretext is always, as in the noun may vary when used with different pretexts: for the season / during rivers to the rivers, from the flow of the rivers, with the passage of rivers, etc.
  • preposition despite like a participle, but differs from it in meaning.For example, despite the rain, the match was held / not looking at me, he quickly left the room.The meaning of the first sentence with a preposition: although there was a rain, the match is not canceled, it took place.The meaning of the second sentence with the gerund: not looking at me, he left the room.

We found the main difficulties that can cause an excuse.


particle as part of a service capable of speech, for example, to change the morphological characteristics of words (for example, create a verb conditional or imperative).This privilege did not get the union.The objective of the service of the speech - only connect homogeneous terms and simple sentences within a complex.

Types unions

The structure alliances are simple or compound, and by value - and coordinative subordinative.

coordinative there to bind and simple homogeneous terms equal to each other within the complex simple sentences.These in turn are divided into three types.

  • Connection: brother and sister were alike.We installed the antenna, also specified coordinates.Bread yes porridge - our food.
  • adversative: He came, but the door is not closed.I read, and she listens.A Vaska listens yes eat.We have not seen Chaliapin, but heard his voice.
  • Release: Not evening, not morning in the yard.Beris for business or go.I want to know the secret, or I do not sleep at night.

have subordinative more intricate role - they bind within the complex offers simple, one subordinate to the other.Therefore, in this category of Union allocates more values.

  • Reason: Got five, because knew the lesson. Since the air temperature exceeds the permitted limit, school canceled.
  • Target: Arseny arrived, to see Katya. To grow chickens need skill and care.
  • Time: While not extinguished stove fire, we will not die of hunger and cold. soon as the fog, Gabriel saw the shore. Since you left, we did not look into this room.
  • Conditional: I do, if you can help.Zayd, if home will be.
  • Comparison: He saw all the flaws, as if through a magnifying glass.I like scales fell from his eyes.
  • izjasnitelnyh: Our ancestors thought, land that rests on three pillars.
  • concessive: He was agile, though and small.
  • Consequences: You made a choice, so do not be angry.

Features spelling unions

Spelling Unions (prepositions, particles) is subject to the general rule - not to be confused with designs that combine parts of speech are inscribed with prepositions or particles.

  • Unions too well to , but write one word: "I was in a hurry to Nina, she also waiting for a meeting.""He jumped from the fire, not to get burned.""The most create a hard, but honorable."
  • Pronouns particles separately write: "It was the same dress, in which she played Chopin.""My dear, what would we do without you!" "Beris only for business, in any sense."


At This special part of speech have two goals.It firstly introduces new shades of meaning in the meaning of the word, and secondly, forming of new words.Therefore, the particles are divided into two categories.

Massing particles make it possible to use the verb in the imperative and conditional moods.These words come on, let, others would. Examples: « Let burst music!" "I wanted to I see this city."

Semantic particles attach to different shades of vocabulary words and sentences.They come in several forms.

  • Negative: He was not a hero my novel.I did not mean to offend you.
  • Question: Is it true , you know Napoleon?Is further - open?
  • exclamation: What a voice!As good!
  • Demonstrative: It plant have not watered. Vaughn is our teacher.
  • clarify: This is your words.This girl - a hair's breadth of our Arishka.
  • Reinforcement: Paul thought about it, because he loved her for a long time. Even in the days of the greatest despair in us warm spark of hope.With
  • value doubt: Maestro unlikely will play today.
  • restrictive-excretory: A usadbe- then you will be happy hunting ground!Everywhere was quiet, only grove gently rustling leaves.

important not to confuse meaning with postfix particle -What -What forming indefinite pronouns.Compare: we are with you know who was on the ship (the particle).When it is necessary to start (suffix).

specify details

to focus on whether there is a different particle and the like , as a pretext , as the Union . as a pretext in the Russian language is not, as a particle and as a union have different functions and importance, as they are different in each case, official parts of speech.Examples:

  • How fair, how fresh were the roses!(particles with an exclamation connotations).
  • I learned how bitter slave labor (izjasnitelnyh Union).
  • kitten was black as shoe polish (Comparative Union).

Let us not be confused

We found the role and especially the spelling of function words.They have in common is that their use is pointless without the nominal parts of speech, so do not interfere in one pile conjunctions, pronouns, particles, prepositions, adverbs and other parts of speech.