Knowing from geography lessons elementary principles, the majority of students in one voice say that the savanna and woodlands - is as much a natural area as the taiga, steppe, tundra, desert and so on. D. This article aims to give a more definite and clear notionon the savannas and woodlands.
So, savannah and woodlands - a natural area, which can be found only in certain geographic zones.They are widely distributed in subequatorial zones in both hemispheres, and small sections are located in the tropics and subtropics.More precisely, they are geographically located almost half of the African continent (about 40% of the total area).Very common woodland savannah and also in South America, the northern and eastern parts of Asia (such as in Indochina), as well as in Australia.
Most often it is a place with insufficient moisture for normal growth rainforest.Usually they begin their "development" in the heart of the continent.
area of savannas and woodlands.The climate
Most natural areas the main cause of the animal's features, flora and soil condition is, first of all, the climate, and directly temperature and temperature changes (such as daily and seasonal).
Based on the above characteristics of the geographical location of savannas, it is reasonable to conclude that, for all seasons of the year is characterized by hot weather and dry winter marked tropical air in the summer, on the contrary, it is dominated by humid equatorial.Deleting data from the areas of the equatorial belt, respectively, to reduce the impact of the rainy season to a minimum of 2-3 months with characteristic it 8-9.The relative stability are seasonal temperature changes - the maximum limit of the difference is 20 degrees.However the daily difference is very large - it may reach as much as a difference of 25 degrees.
condition of soil, its fertility is directly dependent on the duration of the rain period and is characterized by high leachability.Thus, the closer to the equator and the equatorial forest natural area of savannas and woodlands, and it is their ground, characterized by high content of red soil.In areas where the rainy season lasts for 7-9 months, most soils are ferrallitic.Places with the rainy season in 6 months or less "rich" Sava red-brown soils.In slabooroshaemyh areas with rain falling only a period of two to three months, formed unsuitable soil with a very thin layer of humus (humus) - up to 3-5% of the maximum.
Even the soil, like a shroud, have been applied to human activities - the most useful of these are used for livestock grazing and for growing different crops, but due to improper use of the already impoverished areas turn into depleted and wilderness areas,unable to later somehow to feed both people and animals.
Flora and fauna
To survive in such volatile conditions, the animals need to adapt to the region, as indeed in all other regions.Savannas and woodlands surprise rich fauna.For example, in Africa, in the territories of savannah inhabited mostly mammals: giraffes, rhinos, elephants, wildebeest, hyenas, cheetahs, lions, zebras, and so on. D. On the territory of South America, there are anteaters, armadillos, ostriches, rheas and so on. D. Numerousand the number of birds - it's notorious secretary bird, African ostriches, Sunbird, marabou, etc. In Australia, the "residents" of savannas and woodlands are kangaroos, their fellow marsupials, wild dingo.Herbivores in times of drought to migrate to areas of better supply of water and food, the path by which time themselves become objects of hunting most predators (and human too).Distributed in savannas and termites.
describing the flora of this natural area as savannas and woodlands, it is impossible not to mention about the baobab - amazing trees, like camels accumulate water reserves in its trunk.It is also often found acacia, epiphytes, palms, quebracho, tree cactus, and so on.. In times of drought, many of them turn yellow, wilt, but with the arrival of rains the whole environment as if born again and again enables arrived animals gather strength and prepare for the next drought.