epic images of heroes is a feature of Russian epic.The exploits Alyosha Popovich and Dobrynya Nikitich described in many legends and reflect a worldview formation period of Kievan Rus.In this article we will deal with those who are the heroes and find out what some of these famous heroes.
In epics mention words like "hero" and "Knight."Let's look to their origin.
Researchers have not yet come to a common agreement, so there are several versions.Hercules has a similar-sounding counterparts in the Old Aryan language ("lucky"), Mongolian ("Bahadur" - "brave, brave rider").
Knight, presumably, comes from the verb "beat", ie means "warrior."In the second version, it is modified in the manner of Slavic word "Viking".
Heroes researchers are divided in two classifications.
first selects elders, younger and heroes of Kievan Rus.The former include heroes, personifying the forces hostile to man.It Svyatogor, Mikula Selyaninovich, Polkan, Ivan Kolyvanovich, Samson, and others.
Younger already has a human face, without the ability to change shape, unlike older.These include Nightingale, Churilov, Duke.
basis of Kiev epics heroes make exploits Alyosha Popovich and Dobrynya Nikitich.Also referred to Ilya Muromets, Michael stream, Ivan Seating son and others.
The second classification is based on the period - dotatarsky period, Tatar and Moscow.It is these Knights are arranged in a slightly different order.
Who is Nikitich?
life and exploits of Dobrynya Nikitich described in many epics.He refers to the period of Kievan Rus' and is depicted servicemen knight Prince Vladimir Red Sun.
believed that he took to wife a daughter Mikula Selyaninovich Nastasya.
noteworthy that among all the heroes of this era it is in the closest relationship with the prince came from.It takes not only military commissions, but also diplomatic missions, as well as collect and deliver the tribute.
addition, Dobrynia often perform such tasks, discarded the rest Knights.
popular he is in second place, after Ilya Muromets, and is often portrayed as his companion.
According to legends, Dobrynia soon found himself "silushku heroic."Next we'll look at its merits, but most are three Dobrynya Nikitich feat.The battle with the Serpent, the battle with the Danube Ivanovich and assistance in the production of the bride of Prince Vladimir.
Origin of image
Researchers Russian epics tend to believe that the image of a collective.However, many argue that it is built on several prototypes of real historical figures.
main argument in favor of a high-ranking athlete is "vezhestvo", which is not often mentioned in songs.This word of our ancestors designated courtesy and ability to find a common language, a diplomatic gift.
According to the epic, his father is the Ryazan governor Nikita.However, researchers Slav Epic believe that the prototype was Dobrynia uncle Prince Vladimir Red Sun, his mother's brother Malusha.It was called the governor as well as the epic hero.
One of the facts that could prove the plausibility version is as follows: in the annals of the specified forced baptism of Novgorod, some epics this point corresponds to the time when he lived Nikitich.
Fight with the Serpent Gorynych
first feat Dobrynya Nikitich has a story, similar to many legends of the ancient world.The battle with the dragon, the serpent, the root cause of evil takes place in the myths of different nations.
So, what we know from the epics?
Sensing the awakening force Dobrynia began to "walk on Polyushko."One day he told his mother he wanted to go to the river Pochayna.According to legend, it has unusual properties.It has been two streams, which moved in the opposite direction and cut all those who try to swim.
There meets hero Snake Gorynycha.Knotted fight, and after the victory of the Knight monster promises never to attack the Russian land and loot villages.But the classic canons of the genre Snake immediately breaks the word.He kidnaps the daughter of Prince Vladimir of Kiev Red Sun.
Next Knight already acting on the orders of the governor.Generally, exploits Alyosha Popovich and Dobrynya Nikitich - often trips on request or the request of Prince.
received magical things from the mother (chain mail, sword kladenets, the mighty steed), the hero finds the lair of the snake.There he confronted the younger Dragons, which he easily won.
Fight with the Gorynych lasted for three days.When the forces have left the knight, he heard a voice from heaven, who said that the need to hold out for another three hours.Having stood battle Dobrynia cast a monster, but nearly drowned in his blood.He escaped from the fact that the earth gave way, and all absorbed.
Then it releases not only the princess, and many children of the rulers of neighboring states.
Fight with the Danube Ivanovich
shown in this epic confrontation between Kiev and neighboring tribes.The Danube - the tragic figure in Russian epics.Once the athlete has served the Lithuanian prince, but fell out of favor, I went to Russia.The legend of the bride matchmaking Vladimir said, and that takes away the Danube and its sister Nastassia to which once had feelings.
But the wedding heroes began to compete in archery, and the Danube accidentally killed Nastasya.When he finds out that she was pregnant, then he throws himself on his sword.Legend has it that from his blood formed the Danube River.
Bylina about the battle of the Lithuanian Dobrynia tells about the events that occurred before the matchmaking.The plot is as follows.Kiev hero riding across the field and saw a velvet tent, which was written that whoever will approach him - will die.
Dobrynia enraged for evermore, drank wine out of the tent and destroyed it.He himself went to sleep in this place.Returning Danube decided to punish the offender.He woke Knight, and they fought for several days.First they hacked all the weapons after fighting hand to hand.
According to one version, they reconciled a passing Ilya of Murom, on the other - they went to the court to Vladimir Red Sun.Prince, after hearing both justified and planted Dobrynya Danube into the cellar because he threatened his Vityaz.
Who is Alyosha Popovich?
next most popular epic hero is Alyosha Popovich son.His father is considered to be a pop from Rostov Levonty, though sometimes it is called Fyodor.
history Alyosha Popovich mentioned in the two epics, where he is the main hero.In the other, he is a minor party or mentioned in passing.
If you do not take into account the two tales of his exploits, mainly the Knight is inconsistent, and often negative character.Many researchers have drawn parallels between him and the Volga Svyatoslavich.
Thus, Alyosha Popovich characteristic that emerges from the stories, not exactly fit the image of "the hero of the Russian land."
only epic, in which the lame and do not differ a great force soldier is shown in a positive role, a legend of his battle with Tugarin.We'll talk about it further.
similar in content epic - the battle of the knight with a leopard-beast.Essentially, it reproduces exactly all the highlights stories of triumph over Tugarin.
plot legend is as follows.Alyosha arrives with his skilful and agile servant Ekim Kiev to Vladimir.There he meets the feast Tugarin who "puts his head on the chest princess."Seeing gluttony and greed snake Alyosha begins to ridicule.First, it compares the soldier with a dog of his father, who from greed choked on a bone and has died, and later - with a cow.
Offended Tugarin throws a knife into him, but Ekim catches it on the fly.Then Alyosha is the enemy in battle "in the open field."
According to the epic, he won with God's help and with cunning.
Tugarin First flown on "paper wings", but Alyosha prayed in the temple, and began to rain.Once the snakes fell knight rode up to him and said, "Why have you brought with him a large silushku?»
When Tugarin turned around to see what has in mind hero, the last cut off his head.In this scene shows the character of Alyosha Popovich: Warrior often sought her not by force, but cunning.Something similar to the way his image of Odysseus in Homer.
what researchers say?
If we consider the exploits Alyosha Popovich, a summary of which can be found in many collections of tales, we will see some features of the image.
On the one hand, the researchers are inclined, that the historical prototype of the hero was rostovchanin Aleksandar Popovic.Boyar, who was in the service of Prince Vsevolod, and later - his son Constantine.
After Yuri sits on the throne in 1281, Alexander went to Kiev to Mstislav and killed in the Battle of the Kalka.
studying the exploits Alyosha Popovich (summary or the full text of the epic), you can see his arrogant and contemptuous attitude to Prince Vladimir of Kiev and nobility.
Often he calls their "pimps," and in these stories often portrayed extramarital affairs heroes with boyars, princes and their wives voivodship.
This suggests that exploits Alyosha Popovich and Dobrynya Nikitich described in different periods of time.When they meet in the same epic, it only shows the origin of the later legends.
image of warriors in the culture
Feature Alyosha Popovich, Dobrynya Nikitich, Ilya Muromets and many other heroes inspired many writers, artists, composers and directors.
example, Alesha depicted in paintings Vasnetsov, Vereshchagin, Vasiliev.It is mentioned in the ballad Tolstoy AK
Modern cartoon creators are also using this epic image.
Speaking about Dobrynya Nikitich, to all the above-mentioned it is worth adding that in his honor named the island in the archipelago of Nordenskiöld, a mountain in the Kuril Islands, and several ships.