The main media in ancient Russia.

Since its inception, mankind has sought for knowledge.It is, first of all, causes a difficult and sometimes quite fierce competition with wildlife.To win, find its niche in a hostile environment, the man was forced to evolve, especially intellectually.Even the first representatives of Homo sapiens in the face of the Neanderthals could not compete in strength and agility with saber-toothed tigers and cave bears.But how to keep the accumulated knowledge?What is the media in ancient Russia was revered more than any other?Why

transfer experience descendants?

people invent more techniques and tricks to nullify the unbridled power of animals.However, in the ancient process of development and faced with another problem - teaching children.Given the short life expectancy of man, sometimes the knowledge and experience of dying with him.A new generation has learned from his mistakes already, without being able to use any media in ancient Russia, for example.This greatly hindered the entire evolutionary proces

s and constantly put a man on the brink of survival.

Perhaps it is the desire to transfer the experience and knowledge to future generations moved the authors of ancient petroglyphs.Very often there were depicted scenes from hunting, medicine and quackery, and other useful classes of the first people.It can be argued that in this way they tried to find the oldest natural media.After all, some of them have passed through the centuries and have survived to the present day.

Over time, the problem of preservation and transfer of expertise is becoming increasingly important.After accumulating knowledge we summarized and demanded a more thorough description of the transmission to the next generation.For all the beauty and deep meaning of petroglyphs nuances of an action they do not pass.We are also interested to see how teaching and learning in ancient Russia, for example.What is considered

information?

It is advisable to find out what is the information as such.Sublimating the views and calculations of most experts, will give a definition: it is a set of data on persons, events and phenomena, which is independent of the presentation.If we talk about domestic content, information - is information that a person receives from the natural environment or the public.

As a consequence of evolution appeared in written sources of information custodians of accumulated data.Physical media - are documents that contain a set of data for transmission concentrated in time or space.

explore the ancient physical media, come to the conclusion that more was yet intangible, t. E. The people to transfer their knowledge exclusively in oral form.The human factor in this case is extremely unreliable.

Writing and document

Although in ancient times were not as such the concept of "documents", they are written sources that have come down to our days.So, what is it?

course, with some stretch can be considered documents petroglyphs, which are modern archaeologists.They are in varying degrees, transmits information about events that occurred in the distant past.Yet the real physical media and their development came with the emergence of writing.

interesting fact is that in the beginning, people tried to put his writings in the "old" on the rocks.Probably covenants ancestors say about the reliability of this method of information transfer.But experience has shown that it is not.In contrast to the figures, ancient writings were often incoherent character, finely deposited so rapidly eroded or overwritten.So to see something like that in our days is difficult.

Clay - the oldest media

media history begins, perhaps, from the time when people have learned to fix their thoughts in a more protected forms.One of the first available materials to create ancient documents become clay.This simple material was discovered by the ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia.It was the Sumerians invented scratching his writings on small clay tablets.

This way of presenting information is already markedly different from rock and wall paintings.Although this script can not call it, the fact that some boards have survived, says a lot.With the development of the Sumerian civilization gradually become more complex and becomes totally and tablets.On the fresh clay is not just painted, and extruded special character style.

At sunset, their civilization ancient Sumerians using clay tablets written entire books of them and created these libraries.The oldest natural media, the collection of which is known to us as the library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, it had more than 30,000 tablets.And it says quite a serious flow of information, which is kept the ancient people.

From clay to metal - the way in a few centuries

Writing meanwhile developed more and more.The text that appears on the labels, grew longer.Clay is also in its natural composition is quite heavy, so proved to be inconvenient to save long opus of ancient people.

We needed an alternative carrier.What were the most ancient natural media in the history of mankind?Once people have used clay improved bone or metal plates.The first mention of these documents are in ancient Egypt.It was there that improved and streamlined the writing on the plates.Printing is not used a chisel and a special spicy style that scratching the text.

Given the compactness and reliability of the data carriers, they are sometimes placed the entire poem.The ancient Greeks, for example, wrote their messages on the lead plates, and then putting them in the tomb for the distillation of evil spirits.

This innovation was picked up and Ancient Rome.Taking into account the total enlightenment inhabitants of the empire, it is not surprising that such plates written almost everything - from wills to the decrees, which were published by the Senate.However, in the latter case, this was done on the bronze, which is then subject to flaunt.However, the production of platelets was pretty costly, even for a wealthy Roman.

Wax - a cheap solution for the data carrier

planks began to be made of wax.The base was made of ivory or wood.In an indentation on its face poured wax.It turned out a kind of modern children's reusable screen where sharp writing style and erase written if necessary.We can say that in this way is related to an ancient and modern media.

The system was so successful that lasted 1,500 years.Wax tablets were used by our ancestors and which called them tserami.Noteworthy is the fact that the media in ancient Russia is very often used by Russian merchants as accounting books and notebooks.But not only trade people tsery liking.Public services produced for them decrees and interpretations.For example, up to now it reached an amazing document, dated to the XI century.It was called Novgorod Codex and consisted of four pages.

papyrus - ancient paper

Unfortunately, due to climate conditions wax tablets often fell into disrepair.For obvious reasons tsery bad transferred hot weather.While it was the main media in ancient Russia, the inhabitants of Egypt appeared papyrus.Yes, as in the case of clay tablets, the birthplace of this innovation was Egypt.

first appearance of papyrus scholars date XXV century BC.The raw material for the manufacture of papyrus served as a cane, which grows in abundance on the banks of the Nile.By itself, the core was made of papyrus plants, which cut into thin strips, and then laid a large overlap and smooth stone.He, in turn, was placed under the scorching Egyptian sun.After drying, the papyrus polished special scrapers made of ivory.Ready-to-eat papyrus is the length of the tape, so he kept mostly in the scrolls.

little later steel sheets connected in a book.Papyrus was fairly widespread in Greece and in the Roman Empire.But for all the popularity of this data carrier, he was still unreliable.Often I torn, burned, damaged by dust.However, a number of documents made on papyrus survived to the present day.However, it is rather an exception to the rule.

Papyrus as a carrier of information in ancient Rus almost unused.Our ancestors chose a more reliable materials in the form of wax tablets and then bark.

Parchment

In the second century BC, people have mastered the production of parchment.It is possible that triggered the principle of "everything is new - well forgotten old."But animal skin again began to be used as the basis for the future production of the information carrier.The main difference from the papyrus is the higher strength of the material.Invented in the city of Pergamum, and without further ado, gave the name of their product.

Despite the fact that the cost of the new media was much higher than that of papyrus, parchment firmly and confidently ousted from use thin and flimsy sheets of cane.Parchment is made from untanned skin of animals, mostly sheep or calf.

approximate the appearance of parchment dated back to II century BC.According to scientists, this material has been popular papyrus.The fact that the media was used in ancient Russia, evidenced by the numerous manuscripts extant.

Parchment was fairly widespread in the ancient world, but because of the high cost of production of all people have started to look for an alternative.

Birch - a gift of nature

in Russia parchment almost not produced until the XV century AD.All were brought from abroad, so the townsfolk he was unavailable.As is the case with clay tablets, people gradually came to the conclusion that you can use for writing a tree.It is not a serious dressing, in the process of manufacturing papyrus, namely the notch rough characters on the front of the wooden surface.Such a method significantly reduces the cost of the entire production process and made "paper" public.

story of this technology originates in the equatorial countries.It was from there she went to Western Europe and Ancient Russia, but somewhat modified and improved.It should be noted that the use of wood for the manufacture of information carriers has been a key and decisive role in the development of the entire paper industry.But in the future.

Starting from the VIII century BC, the wooden plank was widespread in ancient Russia.In the manufacture of materials for writing on Russia used birch bark.Hence the odious name that first comes to mind when they ask: "What was the media in ancient Russia?"Birch bark.

production technology remarkably simple.After boiling with birch billets scraped inner bark, then carefully trim the edges.The result was a tape (roll), or even on the edges of the rectangle.

birch bark scrolls

Usually, birch bark rolled up in scrolls, written text and proved to his outside.Texts squeezed special style made of iron or bone.Birch bark were used in Russia everywhere.Due to low cost and ease of manufacture, they are accessible to different layers of the population.

peasant headman them were Census shower, merchants engaged in reporting and policy displayed on birch bark its will.It is made even small booklets from a birch bark fastened between plates.Extant examples of birch-bark letters are a clear proof of how they were used in large quantities.As it traces the history of ancient Russia.Education in Russia require acquiring skills and writing letters, which only emphasizes the importance of preserving and transmitting information.

Paper - the final stage

Historians say that the paper appeared in China in the II century BC.Its appearance is due to the high cost and unreliability of existing transmission medium in the form of tablets, papyrus and parchment.The first samples of paper products made from defective silkworm cocoons, and later began to be used for that tanned hemp.

in 105 BC.e.Chinese master Cai Lun started to produce paper from mulberry bore fibers, rags, wood ash and hemp.All this is mixed with water in a special form, and then was exposed to the sun.After drying, the master very carefully smoothed the resulting substance with special stones.The invention Cai Lun was the starting point to further improvements in the paper.In its "corporate" structure of new ingredients were added, making the ancient paper more durable and smooth, which subsequently led to the maquila sector.And the history of media for a long time stopped, it can be said to have ended

At the beginning of VII century paper production master Korea and Japan.And after 150 years will know about the Arabs.Further distribution of the paper was going pretty slow.This causes a certain closeness of Arab States from Europe.However, as a result of the Spanish conquest the secret was revealed and spread throughout Western Europe.