The first book.

story of the book is very exciting.It all started back in Mesopotamia about five thousand years ago.The first book had little to do with modern designs.These were clay tablets, which were applied Babylonian cuneiform signs using sharpened sticks.Most of these records had household character, but archeologists were lucky to find descriptions of important historical events, myths, legends.Our ancestors wrote to each such plate for two or three times, easily erasing previously inscribed.The first books in Babylon were the dozens, and sometimes hundreds of pages of original clay, placed in a wooden box, served in the old days binding.

particular interest is the huge library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal.It was a place to store tens of thousands of books and information on various sectors.Unfortunately, to have survived not all unique artifacts.

Egyptian innovation

Currently it is very difficult to find someone who knows absolutely nothing about the culture of ancient Egypt.Most of us in the mind

immediately comes papyrus - paper prototype.It was grown in large quantities along the banks of the great Nile.The stems of the plants were cut into strips, dried and glued.After all these manipulations papyrus carefully ironed stones to give it smoothness.

Naturally, the ink then no one knew why the first manuscripts were created with vegetable dyes.An original pen served as a thin reed.The ancient Egyptians credited with inventing the first automatic recorder pen.Craftsmen began to pour the paint into a hollow reed, providing a continuous flow of ink prototype.

For convenience, the papyrus book one end of the tape was attached to a stick, and it was wound roll itself.Wood or leather cases were intertwined.

Egypt not a single ...

Naturally, the book was created not only in the country of the Pharaohs.Hindus, for example, collected the first books of palm leaves, which are then carefully sewn and were to cover wood.Unfortunately, because of the numerous fires and natural disasters, a single copy of those times have been preserved.

Europeans left their record on parchment.This prototype paper is a specially treated leather.The Chinese invention of paper to write on the tablets made of bamboo stalks.According to one hypothesis (it is confirmed only partially), the inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom were taken hieroglyphs using knots, tied in a special way.However, this version has a lot of unspecified evidence, so consider it plausible, we can not yet.

Most sources claim that the creator of the paper - Cai Lun - lived in Japan about a hundred fifth year BC.Over the next few centuries the recipe, which is made of paper, is a strict secret.For its disclosure threatened terrible punishment.

difference in this case and the Arabs: the representatives of the people, among the first to set up their paper samples, most resembling a modern version.The basic material was washed wool.When gluing individual sheets obtained long rolls (up to fifty meters).

After the adoption of Christianity and the establishment of Slavic Literature in Russia, too, began to appear early manuscripts.

transition to the machine

Typography invents twice in China and in Europe in the Middle Ages.Historians still have not agreed on how and when was published the first printed book.According to some reports, the Chinese have created ingenious machine in 581 BC.According to other sources, this happened between the 936 th and 993 th year.At the same time the first printed book, creation date which documented, has been published in 868.It was an exact copy of the Diamond Sutra Xylographic Buddha.

Europeans have your father of printing.This Johann Gutenberg.He is the founder of the printing press.Moreover, Guttenberg invented Typewriter (significant event took place in 1440).The first printed book was still very similar to the handwritten, with a variety of prints, richly decorated cover and a stylized font.First published books were very expensive because they were set up as hard as handwritten.

second half of the fifteenth century was marked by the spread of printing in Europe.Thus, in 1465 it was based shop in Italy.In 1468, the first publishing house was opened in Switzerland, and in 1470 - in France.Three years later - in Poland, Hungary and Belgium, three years later - in the UK and the Czech Republic.In 1482 it was opened printing workshop in Denmark and Austria, in 1483 - in Sweden, and four years later - in Portugal.For two decades, it formed a printing market, and with it there is competition publishers.

most renowned printing house at the time belonged to Aldus Manutius - famous humanist of Venice.Under its brand name were published works of great authors such as Aristotle, Herodotus, Plato, Plutarch, Thucydides and Demosthenes.

With the improvement of the printing process to reduce the cost of books.This also contributed to the mass distribution of paper.

first textbook

David Invincible - mathematician of VI century - the first time was a textbook, which were written arithmetic rules and formulas.Currently, a unique book is the Matenadaran (depository of ancient manuscripts in Yerevan).

appearance of birch-bark letters

first book in Russia was a stapled sheets of birch bark.In this way, in XI-XV centuries our ancestors exchanged information in writing.Archaeologists first lucky to see birch bark in 1951 in Novgorod.AVArtsiholovsky charge of the famous archeological expedition.

letters scratched on birch bark, using a sharp metal or bone wand (pisalom).Most found birchbark documents are private letters.In these letters people affect economic and domestic issues, give instructions, describes the conflict.Some of them contain humorous lyrics, the protests of the peasants against the feudal domination, lists of duties, the news from the sphere of politics, the will.

From 1951 to 1981, the year it was found about six hundred letters (most - in Novgorod, multiple instances - in Vitebsk, Smolensk, Pskov and Staraya Russa).

works of modern masters

the Novosibirsk Institute of History kept the manuscript titled "versification".She was handed over to the archaeologist Natalia Zolnikova.The basis of the manuscript became silky bark very fine workmanship.However, this is not an ancient artifact, and a modern work.Books are residents of the Old Believer settlements on the bottom of the Yenisey.It appears, in these days, too, the bark is used as the paper.

manuscript in Russia

first Russian book, coming from the pen of ancient Slavs, was called "Glagolitic sheets Kiev."It is argued that it was created about a thousand years ago.The oldest found Russian manuscript book - "Ostrom Gospel" - dates back to the eleventh century.

appearance of printing workshops

first printed books began to appear in Russia after 1522 was in this year began operating a printing house, located in Vilnius.The initiator of its discovery was Francis Skaryna - Belarusian legendary educator.Prior to that, he already had experience in typography: Sixth August 1517 he published "Psalms."It was in Prague, where at that time there was a great leader.

first Russian printed book

first dated edition, which was released in Russia, is called "The Apostle."This church book, which was released in the capital in 1564.Its creator - Ivan Fedorov.In addition, the process involved Mstislavets Peter (at the time he was a student of Fedorov).It is these people forever in history as the creator of the first Russian printed book.Unique edition consisted of 268 sheets measuring 21h14 cm. Circulation at the time was impressive - a little less than two thousand copies.Currently found 61 book.

first textbook reading - what it was?

first Russian printed book, through which our ancestors mastered reading and writing, too, was released master Ivan Fedorov.It happened more than four years ago.It contained the basic rules of grammar and instructive aphorisms, wise sayings and teachings.

appearance of ABC

book from which it was possible to get knowledge, were the most revered in Russia.Among them, of course, came and primers.They were the editors of the Moscow Mint.The first children's book was published in 1634.Its name - "ABC of the Slavonic language, that is to say the beginning of the teaching detem, hotyashe teaches reading of Scripture."The author works - Basil Burtsev-Protopopov.

creation of the first Russian illustrated primer engaged Carion Istomin - Monk, educator and poet.He worked on glory: each letter was accompanied by a picture of the subject, beginning with that letter.The book allows us to study Polish, Latin and Greek alphabet, and there was virtually no texts on religious themes.The novelty was the fact that the book is intended for children of both sexes ("servants" and "damsel").

appearance of bookplates

first Russian printed book with a special sign indicating affiliation specific library, saw the light in the eighteenth century.At the time, the largest book collections could boast associates of Peter the Great, including Bruce J. and D. Golitsyn.All printed copies of their collections adorned miniatures Stamp and font design.

Options mini

name of the first printed book, the size of 6.5 by 7.5 centimeters - "The art of being funny in conversation."The unique copy was published in 1788.In 1885 Krylov's fable of the author have been published in a book the size of a standard postage stamp.To dial was elected to the fine print under the name Diamond.Do you know what the name of the first printed book of miniature size, published in the Soviet Union?It was the Constitution of the RSFSR.It was printed in 1921 in Kineshma.The size of the book - three and a half to five centimeters.

Currently, there are over a hundred miniature books.The biggest collection - works by Pushkin - it fifty books.The present record is a volume of poems in volume 0.064 cubic creator - a folk artist M. Maslyuk from Zhmerinka (Vinnitsa region., Ukraine).

Giant copies

biggest ancient manuscript of the book is in Armenian entitled "Sermons Mushskogo monastery."It created two years - from 1200 till 1202-th.The weight of the book is twenty-seven and a half kilograms.Size is also impressive - 55.5 to 70.5 cm. The unique instance consists of six two sheets, each of which has gone one month old calf skin.In 1204 the manuscript was stolen by the Seljuks.For many residents of redemption Armenian villages have been collected more than four thousand drachmas (note: one drachma equivalent to 4.65 g of silver).More than seven centuries, the manuscript was in the monastery town of Mush, in Western Armenia.In 1915, she migrated to the store Matenadaran in Yerevan.It happened because the Turkish massacres, because of which the unique result of manual labor would simply be destroyed.

Stone Bible

book in an unusual performance can be seen during a visit to the State Museum of Art, located in Georgia.Once upon a time, the master carved twenty scenes from the New and Old Testament into slabs of stone.This is the only instance.The artifact was found in the mountainous village of Abkhazia Tsebelda.

Current status

In the nineties of the twentieth century in the book actually observed dynamic transformation.This was due to the Russian Federation took place in social, political and economic changes.So, publishing was one of the first industries, which began the transition to a market economy.The book has been regarded as an object of entrepreneurial activity.That's why was so important policies of state protectionism in the field of culture and book business as it is a constituent.

In the 1990s, the publication and distribution of books was extremely profitable business.The explanation is simple: the country was experiencing an acute shortage of such products.However, this did not last long.After about five years, the market was saturated.Buyers began to choose books with great care.As the competition became increasingly important role to play characteristics such as product quality and reputation of the manufacturers and distributors.This period is characterized by the growth in the share of translated books.So, in 1993, books by foreign writers were nearly fifty percent of all the products of publishers.

Today there is inconstancy readers' interests.If in the Soviet period, the work of one author were popular for a long time, it is now best-selling list of changes at breakneck speed.This contributed blossomed magnificent color diversity of opinions, interests and preferences of citizens.