Throughout human history there were many cases where in respect of certain categories of people apply the law, equates them to the objects of property.For example, it is known that such powerful states as ancient Egypt and the Roman Empire were built on the principles of slavery.
Who is the servant
For thousands of years the best minds of humanity, regardless of their nationality and religion, fought for the freedom of each individual and asserted that all people should be equal in their rights before the law.Unfortunately, it took more than one thousand years before these requirements are reflected in the law of most countries, and before that many generations of people have experienced what it means to be equated with inanimate objects and deprived of the opportunity to dispose of their lives.The question: "Who is the slave?"You can answer, citing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.In particular, it states that such a definition is suitable for any person who is not able on their own to giv
How did slavery as a mass phenomenon
As strange as it may sound, but historians believe that the precondition for the enslavement of people was the development of technology.The fact is that before an individual could create a number of products with their work more than was necessary to him for life, slavery was economically impractical, so those taken prisoner, were simply murdered.The situation changed when thanks to the emergence of new tools farming has become more profitable.The first mention of the existence of states where slave labor was used, refer to the beginning of the III millennium. BC.e.The researchers note that it is a small kingdom in Mesopotamia.Numerous references to slaves are found in the Old Testament.In particular, it specifies several reasons why people are moving to the lower level of the social ladder.Thus, according to the Book of books, the slaves - is not only prisoners of war, but also those who found themselves unable to pay the debt, married a slave or thieves, who were unable to recover stolen or recovered damages.Moreover, the acquisition of the status of the person meant that his descendants also virtually had no legitimate chance to become free.
To date, historians have not yet come to a consensus on the status of "not free" people in the ancient kingdom ruled by pharaohs.In any case, it is known that slaves in Egypt were considered part of the community, and they were treated quite humanely.Especially a lot of people there were forced labor in the era of the New Kingdom, when even ordinary Egyptians could be free servants who belonged to them by right of ownership.However, as a rule, they are not used as agricultural producers and allowed to create a family.With regard to the Hellenistic period, the slaves in Egypt during the reign of Ptolemy lived in the same way as their fellow sufferers in other countries that were formed after the collapse of the empire of Alexander the Great.Thus, we can say that about the IV century BC, the most powerful economy of the countries located in the north of the African continent, was based on the production of agricultural products free peasants.
slaves in ancient Greece
modern European civilization, and even earlier ancient Roman emerged on the basis of ancient Greek.And she, in turn, all his achievements, including cultural, was obliged to slave mode of production.As already mentioned, the status of a free man in the ancient world often lost as a result of the capture.And as the Greek city-states continually waged war with each other, the number of slaves increased.In addition, this status is assigned to the debtor's insolvency and metekam - to foreigners who are hiding from taxes to the state treasury.Among the activities that are most often the responsibility of the slaves in ancient Greece, we can distinguish housekeeping, as well as work in the mines, in the Navy (rowers) and even in the army.Incidentally, in the latter case, the soldiers who have shown exceptional courage, enfranchise, and their owners compensated the loss associated with the loss of a slave, by the state.Thus, even those who were born not free, had a chance to change their status.
As evidenced survived the historical documents, in ancient Greece, the majority of people deprived of their right to dispose of their lives, were Greeks.Quite a different case in ancient Rome.After all, this empire is constantly at war with its many neighbors, which is why the Roman slaves - is mostly foreigners.They were mostly born free and often tried to escape and return home.In addition, according to the Twelve Tables, which are completely barbaric in understanding the modern man, the father could sell their children into slavery.Fortunately, the last position lasted only until the adoption of the law hinges on which slaves in Roman law - who is anything but the Romans.In other words, a free man, a plebeian and patrician especially in any case could not be a slave.At the same time, not all people in this category did not fare well.For example, in a rather privileged position they were domestic servants, who are often perceived as the owners of the family members.In addition, they could release the bequest of Mr. or for services to his family.
most famous uprising of Roman slaves
desire for freedom lives in every person.Therefore, although the owners believed that their slaves - is a cross between inanimate tools and beasts of burden, they often rebelled.These cases of mass disobedience usually brutally suppressed by the authorities.The most famous event of its kind - of the recorded in historical documents - is considered to be a slave revolt led by Spartacus.It happened in the period from 74 to 71 years of our era, and it was organized by the gladiators.The fact that the insurgents succeeded in nearly three years to keep at bay the Roman Senate, historians have attributed to the fact that at that time the authorities have not had a chance to throw against an army of slaves trained military units, as almost all the legions fought in Spain, in Asia Minor and inThrace.After winning several high-profile victories, the army of Spartacus, which constituted the backbone of the Roman slaves, trained in martial arts at the time, though it was broken, and he died in battle, presumably at the hands of a soldier named Felix.
uprisings in Ancient Egypt
Similar events, but, of course, is much less well known, there have been many centuries before the founding of Rome, on the banks of the Nile, at the end of the Middle Kingdom.They are described, for example, in "Testament Noferrehu" - papyrus, which is stored in the St. Petersburg Hermitage.However, the document notes that the rebellion was raised poor peasants, and then later they were joined by the slaves, mostly immigrants from Asia Minor.It is noteworthy that preserved evidence indicating that members of turmoil sought, above all, to destroy the documents that have been fixed the rights and privileges of the rich.This means that the slaves believed that the blame for their plight unjust laws of Egypt, which divided people on free and slaves.As the revolt of Spartacus, the Egyptian revolt was also suppressed, and most of its members - ruthlessly destroyed.
Ancient Roman laws regarding slaves
As you know, modern laws in many countries are based on Roman law.So, all the people on it were divided into two categories: free citizens (privileged part of society) and slaves (this is lower, so to speak, cast).According to the law, not a free man is not considered a separate legal entity and does not have the capacity.In particular, in most situations - from a legal point of view - he acted either as the object of legal relations, as either "speaking instrument".Moreover, if a slave married a free woman or a slave married a free person, they could not qualify for exemption.In addition, for example, all the slaves who lived with Mr under one roof, had to be put to death if their owner killed in the walls of the house.To be fair to say that in the era of the Roman Empire, t. E. After 27 BC, it was introduced penalties for masters of cruelty to own slaves.
laws relating to slaves in ancient Egypt
Drinking slaves in a state governed by the pharaohs, as was made out legally.In particular, there are laws that prohibit killing slaves, guaranteeing them food and even demanded to pay for certain types of slave labor.Interestingly, in some legal acts of the slaves called "dead member of the family", which the researchers associated with the peculiarities of the religious outlook of inhabitants of ancient Egypt.At the same time, children free man, born a slave, at the request of his father could get free membership and even claim a share of the inheritance equally with legitimate offspring.
Slavery with the US: the legal side of this issue
another state, economic prosperity is at an early stage of development was based on the use of slave labor, is the United States.It is known that the first blacks were slaves in this country in 1619.Negros slaves were imported to the United States until the mid-19th century, and according to scientists, this was forwarded to the slave trade from Africa to a total of 645,000 people.Interestingly, most of the laws pertaining to such "reluctant immigrants", was made in the last decades before the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment.For example, in 1850 the US Congress has issued an act which adversely affects the legal position of slaves.According to it, the population of all states, including those where at the time of its adoption have already abolished slavery, was ordered to take an active part in the capture of runaway slaves.Moreover, even the law punishes those free citizens who helped blacks, escaped from their masters.As you know, despite all attempts to growers from the southern states to maintain slavery, it was still forbidden.Although it is still about a century in various states in the United States acted humiliating black population segregation laws that infringe upon their rights.
slavery in the modern world
Unfortunately, the desire to freely enjoy the fruits of the labor of other people are not eradicated, and to this day.Therefore, every day receives information on the identification of new cases of trafficking - sale and exploitation of human beings.And the modern slave traders and slave owners sometimes are much more violent than, for example, Roman.After thousands of years ago the legal status of slaves was concretized, and they depended on the will of their masters only partially.As for the victims of trafficking, it is often about them, no one knows, and poor people are the plaything of their "masters".