Azov Sea on the map is a semi-enclosed waters of the Atlantic Ocean.With facilities in the eastern part of Europe.The two countries have on their territory the Sea of Azov - Ukraine and Russia.
Azov Sea is considered to be the smallest in the world.Its maximum depth - not more than thirteen and a half meters, and the average (according to various estimates) - within 6,8-8 m. In the area where the Sea of Azov, are located other objects, connecting the waters of the Atlantic Ocean.Among them is the Kerch Straits and Gibraltar, Bosporus and Dardanelles.In addition, the connecting links are the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas.
Back in ancient times, where the Sea of Azov is now, there was no water.Filling the water area allegedly began in 5600 BC.e.While Don River empties into the Black Sea directly in the current of the Kerch Strait.In the area where the Sea of Azov, there are different communities.The names of many of them went on behalf of the pond.For example, the v
In ancient times, the waters of different nationalities were called differently.It should be said that the sea is renamed enough times.Until today not established the exact origin of the name.There are several hypotheses on the original etymology of the word "basics":
- named Prince Azuma, who was killed in 1067 r .;
- on the name of the tribe, "aces", which, in turn, was supposed by Avestan and means "fast";
- of Circassian "uzev", which means "neck";
- of the Turkic word "azan" - "lower".
Even back in I in.n.e.Pliny in his writings, listing the Scythian tribes, says the settlement "Asoka".The name is similar to the word "basics".It is believed that the modern name of the waters began to be used in Russian toponymy from the beginning of the 17th century, thanks to the chronicler Pimen.It must be said that the original name has not received all the Azov Sea (map of Russia not far from the one which received the name of the city of Taganrog is located today).And only to the 2nd half of the 18th century the name has been reserved for the entire area.
history of the study area, where the Sea of Azov, conventionally divided into several stages.
- Geographic (ancient), which lasted from the time of Herodotus to the early 19th century.
- Geology and Geography.It lasted from the 19th century to the 40s of the 20th century.
- Complex.This period began with the mid-20th century and continues to this day.
Claudius Ptolemy was compiled the first map of the coast of the Sea of Azov.Ukraine as such did not exist, and the position of the reservoir relative to other objects was not obvious.Ptolemy established the first geographic coordinates to the mouths of rivers, cities, bays and capes.Subsequently Svyatoslavovych Hleb, who ruled in 1068 in Tmutarakani, the ice measured the distance from Kerch to Taman.Component is then approximately 20 kilometers.Already 12-14 centuries Venetians and Genoese began to make maps and sailing the Azov and Black Seas.
region where the Azov Sea, lies between 45 ° 12'30 "and 47 ° 17'30" with.w.and 33 ° 38 'and 39 ° 18'.d. The maximum length of the reservoir reaches the 380 km, width - 200 km.The coastline has a length of 2686 km, the surface of the water area covers an area of 37 800 square meters.km (this figure does not include the spit and islands, which are spread in an area of 107.9 sq. km).According to the morphological features of the object belongs to the category of flat seas.Pond is considered shallow, have low slopes of the banks.Azov Sea (map Russia is clearly seen) far enough from the ocean.In connection with this object belongs to a group of continental waters.In winter, the Sea of Azov may be fully or partially freeze.The ice at the same time imposed on the Kerch Strait.Typically, ice formation begins in January.In cold years, it can also occur in the month before.
place where the Sea of Azov, has a relatively simple underwater topography.In the course of distance from the coast there is a smooth and slow growth of the deep.In the central part of the area they reach 13 meters.There are maximum depth.Location isobaths, approximate to a symmetric violates little pull them towards the north-east to the Gulf of Taganrog.Approximately two kilometers from the shore is a 5-meter isobath.It is removed from the Taganrog Bay and near the mouth of the Don River.In this area the depth increases toward the open side of the pond.On the border of the sea and the Gulf they reach eight or nine meters.Bottom topography is characterized by a system of seamounts.They extend along the west (banks Arabatskaya and Marine) and eastern (Zhelezinka Bank) coasts.Depths of them are reduced to 8-9 with three to five meters.To shore underwater slope on the north coast is characterized by a fairly broad shallow water.Here, the depth of 6-7 m. The southern coast is different steep underwater slope.Depths on this site - 11-13 meters.Seashores tend to be sandy and flat.In the southern sector, however, can be seen the hills of volcanic origin, and sometimes passing into advanced steep mountains.
catchment area in the basin is about 586,000 square meters.km.Currents depend on the blowing strong winds north-east and south-west.The main motion is along the coast.His back clockwise direction.
to shallow reservoirs characterized by high seasonal variability in temperature.In winter the figure rises to a minimum.In January and February values close to freezing point.In the southern part of the reservoir, near the Kerch Strait, a pillar of the thermometer rises above zero.The amplitude of the temperature of a year - + 27.5 + 28.5 ... degrees.In the summer, the entire surface of the sea marked quite homogeneous indicators - from 24 to 26 degrees.In July, in some areas (such as the Crimea) the Sea of Azov is heated to a maximum of 28 ... 28.5 degrees.But the most highest temperature was recorded in Primorsko-Akhtarsk.It was 32.5 degrees.As to long-term average temperature on the surface it is within 11 ° C.Interannual variations while in the order of one degree.
Azov Sea has a hydro-chemical characteristics.They are formed mainly under the influence of inflow of abundant (about 12% of the total water).In addition, there is a somewhat hindered water exchange with the Black Sea.Before the regulation of the Don salinity of the reservoir was considered lower than that of the ocean.three times.Indicators range from 1 ppm to the mouth of the river to 10.5 in the central part and to 11.5 in the Kerch Strait.The salinity of the Azov Sea began to rise after the construction of waterworks Tsimlyansk.By 1977, the average increased to 13.8 per thousand, in the Taganrog Bay figures were slightly lower - 11.2.During a relatively high moisture content there was a rapid drop in salinity.It was during this period 10,9 ‰.However, by 2000, figures rose again, stabilizing at 11 ‰.It should be said that in the northern part of the reservoir there is little salt, in contrast to the area, which is adjacent to the Crimea.Azov Sea (map showing the location of the object, shown below) in the area is rich in salt deposited lump.It was mined since ancient times.Until the late 19th century salt from this site meets the needs of Russia by almost half.The greatest value of salinity of the water reaches the solution - brine Sivash and other lakes.This is due to intense evaporation from the surface of the water in the summer.All these areas are hypersaline large renewable mineral salt deposits, which are known to the Sea of Azov.Russia, having these objects, provides a considerable amount of this mineral.Because of the connection with the sea part of the brine is similar to the structure of the sea water.Advantageously, in the brine present chlorides and sulfates of magnesium and sodium.
Azov Sea has a low transparency.At each time, and in different areas, it differs.Indicators range from 0.5 to 8 meters.Low transparency due mainly receipt of large amounts of turbid river waters, fast enough resuspension of bottom sediments during the raging of the water, as well as the presence of plankton in the water mass.The lowest rates are found in the Taganrog Bay.There is transparency in the range 0.5-0.9, in rare cases - 2 meters.Water in this region can change its color from a greenish yellow to brownish-yellow.In the central part of the reservoir due to the great depths and under the influence of the Black Sea flows transparency can range from a half to two and a half to eight meters.Here, the water has a greenish-blue color.Almost everywhere in the summer time there is an increase in transparency.And in some areas because of the fairly rapid development of tiny animals and plants in the upper figure drops to zero.The water then becomes bright green.This phenomenon is known as "sea bloom".