studying more than one century the personality as a psychological phenomenon, researchers have come to different conclusions about its components.
most common today is the psychological structure of personality, consisting of four components:
- orientation or aspiration (as well as installation, worldview, values, desires, interests, ideals);
- capacity or capability (abilities, skills, habits);
- character, expressed in a set of attributes that uniquely combined with each other;
- motives - conscious actions to achieve the relevant objectives.
All components are linked, and it is impossible to imagine that any of them exist in isolation, because it is always the person whose identity is multifaceted, unique and interesting.He can not be absent in nature, can not be no ability or no motivation and desire for anything is always there.
Psychological structure of personality - a set of interrelated components that determine the uniqueness of each individual.
As has been said before, how to come to a
Today is considered to be the fact that there is something in the personality of the social, and there is a purely personal.This approach to the isolation of the components found called "socio-psychological structure of personality."It is the most comprehensive, rational, because the structure of the components have been included previously been ignored: the biologically caused symptoms of a person (temperament, especially the nervous system, gender, age).Separately allocated a social component (the will, mental processes, focus and experience).After this separation, scientifically sound, it became clear what characteristics in itself, we can change or adjust due to exercise, training, education, and what is not (possible social, biological - no).And this information "are expensive."
original theory proposed in his time Freud.The structure of the individual in his understanding and presentation of his followers consists of three components: I, above, and Ono.Under the "I", he understood component that provides external control over the behavior of the person (mind, consciousness, thinking).Under the "top" - the part of the person that is responsible for compliance with the moral concepts and values."It" - is unconscious in man, namely, his instincts, the desire for pleasure with no prohibitions and restrictions.I'm on top, and are in constant conflict with Ono, suppressing its manifestations.
This ingenious view explains these moments, which recognizes the right to interpret the psychological structure of the individual could not, namely the presence in the structure of the unconscious psyche.Delving into the study of the last component of the structure, Freud, and then opened his followers are many phenomena that are taking place, but their existence is not "fit" in the "traditional" theory.This so-called defense mechanisms and systems, which are manifested in our behavior, remain unconscious.Such a situation should remain unchanged, since learning of their defense mechanism (for example, substitution of other negative memories, unrealistic), we deprive ourselves of it, and thus deprive protect his psyche.If such a method was necessary, therefore, there is a good reason.The only thing all psychologists agree (theoreticians, practitioners, researchers) - psyche is a self-regulating system, not studied until the end.
Thus, as a result of scientific research psychological structure of personality found more or less clear outline.Each of the three theories presented here has a right to exist, because they are not mutually exclusive, but complementary, enabling us to form an idea of themselves as members of the genus, with a unique and unmistakable, with its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.