Fish salmon.

salmon are the only family of fish, which is a suborder Salmoniformes.There is not one person who at least once did not try dishes from salmon or chum salmon, pink salmon and grayling.But fish salmon is considered a delicacy among gourmets.It is also appreciated worldwide famous red caviar.But not everyone knows that the list of representatives who are called in one word "salmon" is quite extensive.

list of representatives Salmoniformes

This family consists of those representatives of the salmon as salmon and flax, trout and grayling, trout and cisco, whitefish and trout, chinook and coho, sockeye and chum salmon and rainbow trout.Especially known for many salmon and trout, which are called several different species of fish.These names are like a collective.

salmon fish, the list of which is presented here relate to freshwater and migratory, that is, living in the sea but spawn in freshwater rivers running.Sometimes this is the way of life for them and their unborn offspring.

Fish of this family live in the oceans - the Pacific and the Atlantic, and in the fresh waters of the middle and northern latitudes and in the waters of the Northern Hemisphere.The largest breeding ground is considered to Kamchatka.

Almost all kinds of salmon prized as a food fish.Moreover, their extraction is carried out not only for the delicious gourmet meat and valuable, but also for the extremely expensive caviar, which is also a delicacy.That's why some salmonid species of fish now are on the verge of extinction.Some species even listed in the "Red Book" in order to protect them.

cage salmon - fish salmon, which artificially bred and cultivated.Also, some types of fish farmers bred trout.

main parameters of the representatives of salmon

body length of the representatives of salmon range from very small dimensions of only a few centimeters to two meters.Most are small whitefish, but the salmon, trout and chinook salmon, as the largest reach 70 kilograms in weight.

Usually the life of these fish is limited to 15 years.But sometimes there are also real centenarians.For example, it was discovered trout - a fish of salmon species that lived more than 50 years at the time of capture and weighed 105 kilograms!And the size of the survivor surprised everyone: two and a half meters - such was the length of his body!

Appearance Salmoniformes

representatives Salmoniformes their structure very close to the Clupeiformes.Apparently, for a long time and considered their closest relatives of the famous herring.But relatively recently, scientists who study fish, proved that an independent party.Thanks to this discovery, they were in a separate group, which is well named - Salmoniformes.

body of these fish is laterally compressed, elongated and covered with circular scales.In some species, the scales have comb edge.Many salmon distinguished by the presence spots on the body, a kind of nakrap.A distinctive feature is also a lateral line that runs along the body.

Fins Salmoniformes

pectoral fins in all species of this family have spiny rays.They are nizkosidyaschimi.But in the ventral fins is six or more rays.

There are more interesting contrast to these fish.This, for example, dorsal fins, which are observed in two salmon.One of them, a real, with lots of light.And at the salmon it contains 10 to 16 seeds, while hariusovyh - from 17 to 24. Behind this is another bezluchevoy fin, which is called fat.It is located directly opposite the anal fin and is a characteristic feature of this family of fish.

structure Salmoniformes

There are also other differences between members of this family from all others.For example, salmon fish has a swim bladder that connects to the esophagus special channel.The intestine is equipped with its numerous pyloric appendages.Mouth of fish on top of the salmon family is bordered by two pairs of bone, called premaxillary and maxillary.

interesting feature different females that lack the rudimentary oviduct, resulting in the maturation of eggs directly from the ovary falls directly into the body cavity.

Fish salmon surprised by the fact that it is in front of transparent eyelids.Also, the majority of Salmoniformes till death do not fully ossified skeleton.For example, substantially all skull consists of cartilage and side branches not incremented to the vertebral bodies.

poaching kills the offspring of salmon

During spawning more pronounced, and other features of this family of fish.The fact that this process takes place only in fresh water.Therefore, communicating the fish that live in the oceans and seas, where the water is salty, to spawn upstream rise in rivers and streams.Lakeside Salmoniformes also returned to the place where were born themselves.

Until now, there are many hypotheses to explain why and what fish need to get to the spawning ground is the place of his birth.But the poachers do not break your head over this issue.They use this fact mercilessly ruining doroguschy huge amount of fish that is ready to give birth to countless descendants.On the way to the spawning exhibited network used explosive packages.As a result, the light does not appear great number of salmon.

poachers act like this is not only because of spawning fish is extremely easy to catch.The question still rests in the fact that prior to spawning salmon originate internal metamorphosis.For example, they have degenerated stomach, liver and intestines, the meat loses its elasticity and fat content, which naturally affects the taste of the product.

Spawning salmon

As already noted, in the period before breeding dramatically changed by fish of the salmon family.In addition to loss of taste of meat, they are transformed and externally: the body loses its silver, its color becomes bright and appear on the body red and black spots, it becomes higher.Males of some species become humps, that was the appearance of the name of one of the species - salmon.

my jaw salmon: the top is bent downwards, and the bottom, on the contrary, up, increase the size of the teeth.

Fish salmon for spawning the male gets a bright wedding attire.Each subtype and variant looks at this time in many ways.

known that the vast majority of anadromous salmon after spawning dies.Such a fate awaits the Pacific salmon, sockeye, pink salmon and a few others.But among the individuals of the Atlantic, in particular salmon, some individuals manage to stay alive.Cases where the fish spawn at one occurred four times, and once was even counted a record - salmon came to produce offspring for the fifth time!


extremely huge list of representatives of salmon.Different species by their appearance, as well as habitats.One example is the fish trout - salmon family.It's more than a certain kind, and the collective name a few.In appearance, not everyone is able to determine the exact individuals belonging to a particular species.But experts are distinguished Scottish and alpine, European and American, river and lake, as well as rainbow trout.All the members of this species of fish is very beautiful.

Speaking of rainbow trout, not to mention its advantages over all other species.This unpretentious fish is very tasty, and besides, and very beautiful.Her name appeared because of the bright color of the body that shimmers in the light of all the colors of the rainbow.

Trout has commercial value, as it has successfully bred artificially for hunting, and for food.Some restaurants offer gourmets choose live fish in special artificial reservoirs that catch nets and cook prepared at the customer.To breed trout species other than trout include trout and char is.


The representative Salmoniformes spawns mainly in the Koryak Upland, Kamchatka and the Commander Islands.Chinook salmon - one of the largest salmon of the Pacific Ocean, as well as most large freshwater fish northeast.Some individuals reach a weight of sixty kilograms with a body length, equal to almost one and a half meters.Color chinook different spotting: shallow spots and dots scattered on top of the head, tail and dorsal fin and the upper half of the body.


Almost all salmon fish photos are presented in this article are spots on the body and fins.But salmon is distinguished their complete absence.Often, it can be noticed faint signs of breeding plumage.This is usually a grayish pink stripes that run across the torso.

During spawning chum sharply distinguished from all varieties of salmon.This is because her body is decorated with a red cross, black and green stripes.A male chum surprise its huge teeth that are actively grow during this period so that they do not even have the ability to close your mouth.

Sockeye salmon

second title of representative of the salmon - red fish, because the meat is not pink in her, like all other members of the salmon, and the intensity of the red.Yes, and during the breeding period of this species of salmon has the unique colors: green head goes into the red body.

Before spawning the female is building a nest for his future offspring.It vigorously moves fins on pebbly soil, washing of fine sand and silt.Then the salmon roe rolls, which, depending on the ambient temperature develops from 50 to 150 days.To complete resorption of the yolk sac larvae remain in the mother-built female nests.


This is one of the finest representatives of salmonids.He single-colored dark-gray back and sides of some species have black spots of various shapes and sizes.Zhёltopyatnisty and Siberian, Amur and Nizhneamurskaya and Baikal grayling distinguished by the presence of a large reddish spots on the sides of the abdomen.Pelvic fins are decorated with red-brown stripes.These colored track is cast purple hues.Bright maroon tail and anal fins grayling complete portrait of this handsome man.


This type of salmon is considered polymorphic as highlight features that are typical of this type is quite difficult.Perhaps it is worth noting the lack of teeth and the presence of the lower mouth.Some species can be observed pronounced rylnuyu site.Among the salmon in this type include the finest representatives.

body length from whitefish can be 10 cm in small species and 60 cm - at large.The life of these fish can reach up to 20 years, but most of the catches are individuals from 7 to 10 years.Semi and lake whitefish sometimes grow up to 68 cm in length and can weigh up to 2 kg.The largest specimen, which managed to catch, had a mass of 12 kg.

tell about salmon can be infinite - so much amazing and interesting things associated with this family of fish.