Mixed and deciduous forests.

In vast areas of North America and Eurasia are located and mixed deciduous forests.Areas of green areas located in moderate geographical belt of the Earth.The list of plants that are rich in these forests include pine, spruce, maple, linden, oak, ash, hornbeam and beech.

mixed and deciduous forests - this habitat of deer and brown bear, elk and deer, ferrets and martens, squirrels and beavers, wild boars and foxes, hares and chipmunks, as well as many small rodents.Birds who believe these arrays their housing, - a stork and the cuckoo, owls and grouse, grouse and geese, ducks and owls.The lakes and rivers of the forest area inhabited mainly carp species.Sometimes there are salmon.

mixed and deciduous forests heavily affected by human activities.Ever since ancient times, people have cut down their, replacing fields.

Forests of North America and Western Europe

The area of ‚Äč‚Äčconiferous forests has its southern border.It is located in the western part of Eurasia and in the North American Great Lakes

.Its location - about sixty degrees north latitude.To the south of that mark along with softwood deciduous forests are present.Thus trees in different parts of the world they are represented by different species.

climate mixed and deciduous forests is warmer than in the zone of coniferous species.Summertime in these zones longer than in the north, but the winters are quite cold and snowy.In such mixed and deciduous forests dominate shirokotravnye plants with wide plates.

autumn deciduous trees shed their veil to form humus.Moderate moisture promotes accumulation of soil in the upper layers of mineral and organic substances.

transition band, in which there are mixed forests, heterogeneous.In the formation of vegetation in these arrays play an important role to local conditions, as well as the types of rocks soil.

For example, in southern Sweden and the Baltic states occupied large areas of forest with a predominance of pure spruce.They grow on the moraine loamy soils.

Several south comes falling out of softwood stands.Forests are only deciduous.In these areas, temperatures in January average does not fall below minus ten, and in July the rate is thirteen to twenty-three degrees of heat.

vegetation of the forests of North America and Western Europe

between mixed and deciduous forests is difficult to draw a clear line.Conifers can be found far to the south, down to the subtropical zone.In addition, the cutting of deciduous trees produce more intense.This caused a major share of conifers.

vegetation is mixed deciduous forests and diverse.In the south of the subtropical their territory penetrated magnolias, and tulip tree Paulownia.In the undergrowth near the lilacs and honeysuckle can find rhododendron and bamboo.Distributed in such zones and vines of wild grapes, Schisandra and so on. D.

Russian forests

In those latitudes, where its southern border stretches the taiga, mixed and deciduous forests come into their possession.Their territory extends to the forest-steppe.Zone, which houses the green areas consisting of mixed trees and broad-leaved trees, is located on the western borders of Russia to the place where the Oka flows into the Volga.

climate that is characteristic of mixed and deciduous forests of Russia

zone green areas there is no protection from the influence of the Atlantic Ocean, which determines the weather conditions in its territory.The climate is mixed and deciduous forests of Russia is moderately warm.At the same time it is quite soft.The climatic conditions of this zone a positive effect on the growth of coniferous trees with deciduous.In these latitudes there is relatively warm summers and long cold winters.

atmospheric temperature of the mixed and deciduous forests in the warm period has an average value greater than ten degrees.In addition, the climate in said zone characterized by high humidity.In the warm period falls and maximum rainfall (between 600 to 800 millimeters).These factors have a positive impact on the growth of broad-leaved trees.

ponds on the territory of mixed and deciduous forests of the Russian Federation originate high-water river, the path which runs along the East European Plain.Their list is the Dnieper and Volga, Western Dvina, and others.

Occurrence of surface water in the area is close enough to the surface layers of the earth.This fact, as well as landscape dissected topography and the presence of clay and sand deposits favor the emergence of lakes and marshes.

Vegetation

In the European region of Russia, and mixed deciduous forests are heterogeneous.In the western part of the zone are widespread oak and linden, ash and elm.In moving to the east continental climate increases.There is a shift of the southern boundary of the zone to the north, while the dominant tree species are fir and spruce.The role of broad-leaved trees is greatly reduced.In the eastern regions most common lime.This tree forms the second tier in mixed forests.In such areas, a well-developed undergrowth.He is represented by such plants as hazel, spindle tree and honeysuckle.But in the low-lying forest floor grow taiga species - maianthemum and oxalis.

Flora mixed and deciduous forest changes as you move south.This is due to climate change, which becomes warmer.In these areas, the amount of rainfall is close to the volatility.In these areas dominated by deciduous forests.Coniferous trees are becoming increasingly rare.The main role in these forests belong to the oak and linden.

territory of these green forests rich floodplain and upland meadows, which are located on alluvial soil layers.There are here and marshes.They are dominated by lowland and transitional.

Fauna

mixed and deciduous forests in the old days were rich in wild animals and birds.Who fauna pushed people in the least populated areas, or destroyed altogether.To save or restore a species there are specially created reserves.Typical animals living in the zone of mixed and deciduous forests are the black ferret, bison, moose, beaver and others. Animal species living in Eurasia, close to the origin of the species, which is the habitat of the euro zone.This deer and deer, martens and mink, muskrat and loir.

acclimatized in this area sika deer and red deer and muskrat.In the mixed and deciduous forests can meet the sand lizard and the grass snake.

Human activities

mixed deciduous forests and Russia contain vast reserves of timber.Their bowels are rich in valuable minerals and rivers have enormous energy reserves.These areas have long been exploited by man.This is especially true of the Russian Plain.On its territory large areas set aside for cattle breeding and agriculture.In order to maintain forest complexes, are national parks.Opened as nature reserves and nature reserves.