Most of the land inhabited by various plants.And though they all belong to the same realm of living organisms, their form and physiology of the individual.For the first time the term "Life forms of plants" was introduced back in 1884 by the Danish botanist E. Warming.He believed that some form of life that characterizes the state of the plant in which it coexists perfectly with the environment.Subsequently, there have been many systems of classification of plants according to similar criteria.
Life forms of plants: classification K. Raunkiaer
famous scientist K. Raunkiaer once developed his own classification of plants, which is guided by the only criterion.It takes into account the important sign of adaptation to external influences, namely the position of kidneys resume in relation to the soil.According to this system are the following forms:
- Fanerofity - shoot tips of the plants are located in the air, even in the most unfavorable seasons.Typically, the distance from the kidney to the resumption of the soil surface is more than 30 centimeters.These plants tolerate environmental effects.
- Hamefity - the tip of the escape is also located above the surface of the soil, but the distance between them does not exceed 20 - 30 centimeters.
- hemicryptophytes - plant life form, which is characterized by a low arrangement kidney regeneration.As a rule, unfavorable seasons shoot apex is on the soil surface under the litter.
- cryptophytes - kidney renewal of such plants are stored either in the ground or under water;
- Terofity - another group of plants whose kidneys are preserved only in the form of seeds.
scientists believe that life forms of plants - is the result of centuries of adaptations for survival under certain climatic conditions.However, this system is not accurate.On the other hand, and today it is popular, it is constantly undergoing modification.
Life forms of plants: classification I. Serebryakov
It is this classification developed in 1962 - 1964 IG Serebryakov, is today considered the most complete and accurate.At its creation scientist took into account the peculiarities of the climate zone and growing conditions, as well as the structure of vegetative and generative organs.It has been divided into four main divisions, each of which includes its own types:
Woody plants (Division A). It is divided into three types:
- Trees - Plants of this form are characterized by the presence of powerful lignified stem.This perennial flora.
- Shrubs - another large group of plants that is characterized by the simultaneous presence of multiple trunks sprouting from dormant buds.
- shrubs - plants, which are very similar to the bushes, but have some significant differences, including the smaller and the length of life.
Poludrevesnye plants (Section B). This group is divided into two types:
- Semishrubs -rasteniya quite similar to the bushes and shrubs, but has its own distinctive features.For example, their skeletal axis live no more than 5 - 8 years, and after the death does not constitute dormant buds.
Ground grass (in the department) - the name says clearly what it is the representatives of the plant world came together in this group.There are two types:
- polycarpic grass - a herbaceous perennials, flowering can be observed every year, sometimes several times a year.
- monocarpic grass - these plants can live for one to several years.The distinguishing feature - a bloom that occurs only once during the period of plant development, then the body dies.
Water grass (Division D) - here are organisms whose livelihoods are somehow connected with the aqueous medium.Accepted provide two types:
- Amphibians floating grass - vegetative body of the plant is usually located on the surface of the water, at the border of land and water.
- Underwater grass - life forms of plants, which have a purely aqueous environment.
Actually, life forms of plants and animals are very diverse.And to date, there is no perfect system for their classification.