This article introduces you to the concept of "biosphere", she will talk about what is the structure of the biosphere.
term "biosphere" is literally translated as "sphere of life".It was first introduced into science Austrian scientist Eduard Suess in 1875.Biologist JB Lamarck later emphasized that all the elements that make up the crust on the surface of the globe, have been formed as a result of the activity of living organisms.The modern interpretation of the concept of "biosphere" implies a kind of shell of the Earth, where there are all living organisms and continuous interaction with them fragments of the substance of the planet.Its formation started about 3.8 billion. Years ago, during the birth of the first in the world of organisms.Biosphere and its structure is one of the elements of the hierarchical structure of nature.The composition of the shell includes the upper part of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and the whole atmosphere of the lower segment.
structure presupposes the existence of
- living substances of living organisms that inhabit our planet.
- nutrients generated in the process of functioning of the body, which is the result of processing and the creation of organisms (atmospheric gases, oil, peat, coal, limestone, and others.).Since the birth of the first living organisms, they missed a thousand times through its organs, cells, blood, tissue all the world's oceans, a large part of the atmosphere, a significant amount of minerals.
- inert substance formed without the aid of living organisms.
- biokosnyh substances resulting from the interaction of non-biological processes and functioning of living organisms, as a dynamic equilibrium complexes and some others (sludge, soil, weathering crust, and others.).They occupy a leading position organisms.
- substance which is in a state of decay.
- scattered atoms are constantly arising from any earthly substance, as a result of exposure to radiation of space.
- Substances unearthly, cosmic character.
Separately should be described in detail first paragraph is no such thing as the structure of the biosphere.Living matter is a complex body of living organisms.Its mass is low compared to other components of the structure of only 2.4 - 3.6 x 1012 tons of dry weight.It is one-millionth of the mass of the biosphere as a whole, which in turn is less than one-thousandth part of the mass of the planet.Although such a small weight, it is very significant as the force of Earth's geochemical because the organisms are not only their livelihoods in the shell, but also affect the appearance of the transformation of the planet, which is inhabited by quite uneven.Less commonly, they are found in the depths of the lithosphere and the lithosphere, at a considerable height, and often live in the soil on the surface of the Earth and the upper layers of the hydrosphere.Area distribution is largely determined by the latitude.
structure of the biosphere, according to VIVernadsky, who first created the doctrine of the biosphere, has three components: aerobiosferu, gidrobiosferu and geobiosferu.
In aerobiosfere living organisms, life whose main element is the moisture in the air.Water droplets in the air and aerosol components, rising from the ground, are essential sources of energy for the microorganisms in the subsphere.In turn, it is divided (suspended) on subpodsfery - altobiosferu and tropobiosferu.
Gidrobiosferu of all the water of the planet, which is inhabited by aquatic organisms.At the same time gidrobiosfera contains marinobiosferu (ocean and sea water) and akvabiosferu (continental fresh water).
In geobiosfere lead geobionty livelihoods, for which the optimum environment is terra firma.
Humanity every year more and more impact on the biosphere and interacts with it, causing irreversible changes.Among this process is called "noosphere".The biosphere and noosphere were deeply studied by academics: Vernadsky, Lysenko, Professor Lepeshinsky and many other great minds in Russia and abroad.