concepts of sex and gender are often confused, and yet the two are quite significant, though not obvious difference.Let's try to determine what is gender and what is it different from sex.You could say that biological sex - male and female - is the innate quality of the individual, to identify at the stage of embryonic development;that sexual characters - the constant and does not depend on the will of the individual.But is it all that simple?Indeed, in recent years with the help of modern medicine can change the floor.And the presence at birth of certain sexual organs in a child does not mean that it can be clearly placed in the category of boys or girls.For now, for example, in a survey of athletes participating in the competition between women, taking into account not only the obvious female characteristics of their body, but chromosome set, because it occurs that, along with female genital organs adjacent to the male hormones, and it gives such athletes someadvantages in the competition.
Yet if sexual characters, most people still biology and anatomy, gender is clearly public, social and acquired through education.A more simple terms it can be reformulated as: babies are born male and female, but men and women are.And it's not about how to raise a baby with diaper - girl or boy: all of us affects the cultural unconscious of our environment.And because gender - the cultural and social phenomenon, it may undergo changes along with the development of culture and society.For example, in the XIX century it was believed that a woman wears a dress and long hair, and a man - trousers and short hair, but now these things do not indicate gender.Previously, "the woman academician", "female politician" and "business-woman" considered something incredible, but now there is more and more often, and no one is surprised.
But, nevertheless, gender, attributed to men and women, still tenacious in the popular consciousness, and the lack of development of a society, the more it dominates individuals, imposing some form of social behavior.Thus, it is believed that a man should be "breadwinner for the family" and be sure to make more of his wife.It is also believed that a man should be courageous, assertive, aggressive, engaged in "male" professions, to get involved in sports and fishing, to make a career at work.Women are credited with being feminine, soft, emotional, get married, have children, be docile and compliant, to engage in "female" professions, making them rather modest career because most of the time she has to devote a family.
These stereotypes, which, alas, are still dominated in some strata, and even countries, to generate human individuals gender.Wife, feeding the whole family;husband going on maternity leave to care for a newborn;a woman, a victim of marriage for the sake of a successful career in science;the man is deceived embroidery - all of them in one way or another are subjected to social ostracism for his inappropriate behavior floor.Can you say with certainty that gender - it is a social stereotype?Yes, because different societies gender stereotypes - male and female - differ from each other.For example, in the Spanish paradigmate know how to cook - a sign of macho, while in Slavic stand at the stove - a purely female occupation.
obvious that gender stereotypes lead not only to gender but also to discrimination based on sex, since the leading role in society is often assigned to men.Therefore, many developed countries at the highest level to develop special gender policy.This means that the state takes responsibility for the elimination of gender inequalities and create a code of laws for the formation of an egalitarian (equal for all people) of the company.It should also carry out education policy designed to eradicate gender stereotypes.