History of Political Ideas

analysis of modern and classical views on the origin of the policy helps to better understand the contents of this search.It also allows us to represent the general structure of this science as a complex of several disciplines.

history of political thought goes back to the basic arguments about the relationship between the ruler and his subordinates, between the state and the individual.Grains such reflections are found even in the treatises of ancient China, India and the East.But most researchers real history of political doctrines still begins with the philosophy of Aristotle and Plato.

Plato - the most famous pupil of Socrates, and later the teacher of Aristotle.He was a very educated man for that time, created his own school of philosophy, wrote many works.His contribution to the development of political science is to create the first concept of the state (even in utopian form).

Plato and Aristotle identified with the state policy, and the political sphere to the sphere of public relations.Su

ch rigid boundaries were due to the underdevelopment of the region, the lack of multi-party system, the electoral process, the separation of powers, and many other things that exist in the world today.At the heart of the political model of Aristotle and Plato was a city policy.Citizens perform its two roles simultaneously: included in the urban community as a private citizen and actively participate in public life, in public life.Politics is not conceived separately from ethics.Subsequently, this approach went on to dominate for nearly two millennia.

further history of political doctrines associated with a shift of attention from philosophers relations within the state to those between the state and society.This issue only in its different variations from 17 to 19 century saw such figures as Benedict Spinoza and John Locke, Hegel and Marx.Locke, for example, was the first to understand the state not as a form of government, as well as a community of people who create order in society was to order that preserves private ownership.

In the 18th century the history of political doctrines supplemented with new ideas, who introduced the French philosopher Charles Louis Montesquieu.In his book "The Spirit of Laws", he pointed out that the conditions of the development of this sphere of influence not only social, but also non-social factors (geographic, demographic, climate and other).Montesquieu suggested that the size of the area affected by the nature of political forms.For example, the empire should be placed over a large area for the monarchy rather average, but the republic will last longer than a small, otherwise it will fall apart.

history of political doctrines of 18-19 centuries is characterized by a significant change in the vision of actors involved in the life of society, the boundaries of their activity.If before the main actors were the monarchs and nobles, but now, under the influence of Jean-JacquesRousseau involved in public life and the masses of ordinary people.

In the same period in Northern Europe and in some European countries were the first political parties, trade unions, electoral systems.All these events have created the prerequisites for a modern, new (but not common) approach to understanding the structure of society.

In the last decades of the 20th century failed Marxist theory that reduces politics to economic processes.But in practice, there was another.Each year, developing, policy is increasingly moving away from economic interests, replacing them postmaterial bases of social activity.There were unique to her property, laws of functioning and development.

Almost all current models of political life policies take into account the concept of Weber, quite the opposite of Marxism.He considered it an area of ​​social relations on the power, as each seeks to manage or own, or somehow involved in the process.