At the turn of 19-20 centuries of symbolism in literature marked characteristic of the time a special stage.His influences were felt in the last decades of the nineteenth century.Symbolism in literature with his aesthetic and philosophical aspirations matured on the background of political reaction that followed the defeat of revolutionary populism.This era is a social stagnation.In this era of symbolism in its infancy.
literature, poetry in particular worried about the disease, the decline at the time.Poetry, have lost their power, strength and height, pale and fade.The technique of the poem has lost its energy and true creativity.
symbolism in literature emerged as a protest against the impoverishment, the desire to return to her life force, saying a fresh word.Along with this trend brought about a negative reaction to the Russian criticism of its materialistic views.Later started the confrontation and the Marxist critic.Poetic Symbolism in literature promoted religion and idealism.
first manifestations of movement became visible in his treatise Dmitry Merezhkovsky, his collection of poems "Symbols".In 1894-95.out "Russian critics."In these three collections of printed works mostly young Bryusov, Balmont.In these works, I felt a new trend.
symbolism in Russian literature came from the West is not isolated.On young therefore has a certain degree of influence of English, French, German poetry.Despite the fact that in some way perceived Symbolist echoes the philosophy of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, they are very strongly denied that they have in principle depending on Western literature.They were trying to find their roots in the native literature, works of Fet, Tyutchev, Fofanova.Were prerequisites to establish a kind of "relationship" with the works of Pushkin and Lermontov.According Balmont, symbolism has existed for a long time.He considered Symbolists Calderon and Blake, Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe and others.
is no doubt that creativity Tiutchev and feta present signs of symbolism.In addition, about a certain course of the relationship with the spiritual culture of Russia, its national soil is evidenced by the fact that the direction is not dead, but rather developed, involving at the same time new strength in its channel.
should be noted that Russian symbolism in literature from the West differed quite sharply.This was due, primarily, to spirituality, wealth, achievements in this direction in Russia.
In the early period of formation of the current works of the Symbolists often derided, and even subjected to mockery.Name attached to so decadent, so evaluating their decadent mood of hopelessness, a pronounced individualism, a sense of the life of rejection.However, by early next century, the symbolism began to stand out as a literary movement in all facets with certainty.It was difficult to confuse with other phenomena of art, he began to have his aesthetics, poetics, their formation and teaching.1900 has become a kind of overseas - in this period confirmed the "face" of symbolism in literature.It was marked by the release of mature, painted bright personality of the author of the book Balmont "burning building" and the works of Brusov "third watch» («Tertia Vigilia»).
Literature symbolist movement was for the Romantics, who were inspired by the idealistic philosophy, recognizing the religious overtones of a new direction.The Symbolists were able to sensitively capture and express a sense of foreboding of the tragic social disasters of the early twentieth century.