Braille for the blind.

Blindness - a condition that occurs when a complete loss of vision in the two eyes.Man ceases to feel light and see something.For such states can cause loss of the ability to navigate in the environment (household blindness) and the inability to do their work through a variety of optical devices (professional).

reasons

Infringement or loss of vision can be caused by different factors.The effects of intrauterine diseases or malformations of the fetus cause of congenital blindness.Children suffer the loss of not more than ten years, and adults who have reached the age of fifty.This is due to the fact that a child or already have congenital blindness, or it gets because of disease or injury to the eyes.People coming of age go blind due to vascular disease or the appearance of glaucoma.In the latter case, corneal transplant surgery may facilitate the return of vision.

Employment of Disabled

Despite physical limitations, blind people in Russia have the opportunity to express themselves in differen

t professions.Their employment is engaged Association of the Blind, which conducts cultural and political-educational work among people with disabilities.The centers of the board are located in Moscow and other large cities.Special books in Braille and a flat-mark of the characters give blind people the opportunity to learn to read, write, and print.

Teaching process in Russia is mandatory training for blind and visually impaired children.The school accepts students with vision from 0.05 to 0.2.For the education of children of this category used a magnifying glass and other techniques to improve vision.Furthermore, the font used with enlarged characters.Specialized schools take children totally blind and vision to 0.05.Education using different methods and visual aids accented by hearing and touch.Libraries for the blind have audio and regular edition, a special Braille.The Russian State Library for the Blind (the largest in the country this type of institution) provides specialized benefits.This, in particular, not only the above-mentioned publication, but also a huge collection of relief-volume models, which allow people with vision loss learn different kinds of objects and their experience.

use of computer electronic devices

Alternatively, the replacement of the publication is an audiobook.With their help, you can listen to a performance (with pauses, the divisions) and performances on a digital player.The contribution made by volunteers, and that at the special site was created audiobooks, free to listen to and spread.Manufactures and develops a range of devices that replace vision.Model visually-replacement devices (project "tactile vision") is a new patented means of coding and transmission.Publications, which used Braille (Russian) keyboard and display, help people with disabilities to work with texts, creating and editing them.A special program on the basis of the speech generator, by which information is read from the screen, also makes a major contribution to the full life of blind people.

Braille

This is a special system of teaching reading and writing for the blind.It was developed in 1824.Frenchman Louis Braille (fr. Louis Braill), son of a shoemaker, in the age of three lost his sight due to inflammation after wounding eye with an awl.At fifteen, he created a method of tracing and reading letters.Subsequently, he was named by the name of the creator.

Braille Braille was different from the linear type mark signs Valentin HaĆ¼y.Towards a boy pushed "Night method" developed by artillery captain Charles Barbier (fr. Charles Barbier) to read military reports in the dark.The disadvantage of Barbier was too large signs limiting the number of them on the page.Using print, Braille, blind people learn to read and write.This method helps to develop the skills of grammar, punctuation, spelling.In addition, using this method of blind or visually impaired can learn about graphs and complex schemes.

structure

What is Braille?How is the mark and reading?The letters in Braille are represented with six points divisible by exactly two columns.The text is read from right to left, and on the next page he was going left to right.However, there is some difficulty in the perception of this font.It lies in the fact that the text is read in the reverse page of the protuberances on the other hand punctured marks.The points are numbered from top to bottom on the first column and read on the right, then the left side.How does this happen?Upper right corner - finding the point 1. Under it is 2. The lower right corner of the top left takes 3 - 4 seat position, then at the bottom - 5, and in the lower left corner - 6.

Some tiflopedagogi offered swap 1 and 3,but the proposal was not supported.Later, expanding Braille (Russian in particular), added 7 at 3 and 8 at 6. A cell without a puncture - a specific symbol.There are generally accepted standards for the size of points and the distances between them and the columns.The minimum height of the level sufficient for recognition - 0.5 mm.2.5 - is the interval between the punctures;3.75 mm across, 5 mm vertically - is the distance between the cells.This structure allows the blind to quickly and easily master the skills of reading, easily recognizing the signs to the touch.

printed sheets of text in Braille have different formats.But traditional Russian deemed sheet including twenty to thirty-five lines, and thirty-two characters each for a total amount of twenty-three to thirty-one cm.For people with vision loss in Braille Braille - the only way by which you can learn to read and write.With these skills, people with disabilities are not only competent and independent, and have the opportunity to find a job.

How can I use the system?

Braille includes 63 informative character and a space (64 minutes).Extended system contains 255 characters.In it, as in the conventional, there is also a gap.Since the total number of different combinations of points is limited, often used multicellular symbols.They consist of several characters, which individually have their functions.There may also be additional characters (digits, uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet).Each landmark peculiar combination of multiple values, the number of which may exceed a dozen.

Braille is applied to the paper by means of special written items - a special device and pencil.For this reason, any change in the configuration of the selection, the size, shape letters impossible.Accepted provide the characters with special signs.They are placed in front of capital and small letters.In the presence of different types of fonts, these signs are installed before and after the allocation of words or parts of sentences.Mathematical root, the upper and the lower index symbol stands on both sides.To create a text or part of its italic placed between special privileges - conditional tags.It may be noted some similarities with the system html.It also applies tags.

Grammatical features

Braille has characteristic features in terms of its build.They are to change some grammatical rules.Therefore, a blind person who has learned to write through this system ("brailist"), will allow certain errors while working on a regular, not adapted for disabled computer.Braille is different from the normal by the following indicators:

- the capital letter is ignored;

- after a comma and a space before the dash is not put;

- there is no gap that separates the number sign and number;

- one and the same notation is used for similar characters (the dash and a hyphen - only a punctuation mark in the system).

Similar grammatical flaws are the norm for writing Braille.Blind people will they be allowed until after a special additional training.

value of

Using different combinations of points in a single Braille cell reproduces a letter alphabetic, numeric, musical symbols.Symbols of this system are used to write foreign words and letters, computer and mathematical symbols, equations.Braille - effective means to develop the skills of grammar, punctuation, spelling, for blind people.Also, a system of simple and affordable describes the graphs and charts that describe verbally very difficult.

allowance

Having mastered Braille, a blind child can start learning and working on a computer with a special display and a special printer.The text reads forefinger of one or both hands.Perceived to the touch, he quickly understood thanks to lightness and compactness of the characters.This manual is intended to teach sighted people braille system in the home.This will give an opportunity to build communication with unseeing family members, write them a note or leave a phone number.What is important is the fact that sighted people learn to read what they write for the one who was trained in Braille.It will be able to communicate without the mediation of others.This guide can successfully use the school teachers and therapists.

method mark

As mentioned above, the tactile Braille invented a method of reading for the blind and visually impaired people.This principle is based on the information set of six stamps (cell).They are arranged in two rows of three characters.Points, which are in a different order within the cell to form a sense of unity.Signs follow in a particular order: left 1, 2, 3 from the top down, and the same right column - 4, 5, 6.

1 * 4 * 2 *

* 5 * 6 * 3

So, actuallyformed braille.How to learn this method?

technology

Braille device and pencil, typewriter - these are the tools that are used for the presentation of letters for the blind.A sheet of paper, enclosed between two metal plates or plastic devices, clamped them.The upper part has a series of rectangular windows, and the bottom - corresponding to each window indentation.The cell plate is similar to braille cell.The sign is formed by the pressure of the pencil on the paper.The recesses in the bottom plate while squeezing give certain symbols.Entries are printed from right to left, because the text is to play the other side of the sheet.Column with numbers 1, 2, 3 located on the right side and 4, 5 and 6 - from the left.Braille typewriter consists of six keys.They correspond to 6 points in the cell.Moreover, in present typewriter handle shaft linefeed and "turning back" and "blank".The keys with which character is formed, is pressed simultaneously.Thus, each pressing the letter.

from "space" on the right and left side are three buttons.Consider how by pressing.The index finger of the left hand should press the button next to the "space".It is necessary to point 1. Press the button on the left.The middle finger of the same hand carry the mark of point 2. To do this, press the center key.It follows the one that corresponds to the point 1. Nameless press the last key.It corresponds to point 3. The fingers of the right hand press a key on the opposite side.The first, located directly next to the "space", corresponds to the point 4. She pressed his forefinger.Next - corresponds to point 5. It should be pressed middle finger.Last key corresponds to point 6. Click on her ring finger.Thus, with the mark of both hands are involved."Space" put a thumb.Typed text can be read without turning the sheet of paper.

Conclusion

Mastering the Braille system applications require some effort.Mark, inadvertently delivered in the wrong place, can change the digits in the phone number, for example.But the forces that went to study Braille, will not be wasted.The main thing - to set a goal and strive to obtain good results.