history and philosophy of science, science of science, or combined into a science about science

Very often, a comprehensive study of science called it as "science of science".However, this term is highly controversial.Professor Kopnin in particular believes that the science of science can not be regarded as an independent science, since it does not as such a general theory, a unified methodology and precisely defined methodology.Although disciplines that relate to the science of science, which often include such as logic, history and methodology of science, history and philosophy of science have a common object, yet they are studying it with a completely different angles, which leads to practical absence of pointscontact these disciplines together.As a result - the actual lack of a unified theory of the science of science, or at least complex theories that may be integrated efficiently combine and synthesize.

Naukovedenie, or rather, scientometrics has its origins in the writings of Price and followers of his school.While nakuometrii are reduced to the use of statistics and content analysis of e

xisting at the time of publications, sources used, staff consisting of scientists and material resources invested in science.In fact it was the sociology of science that studies the dynamics of the institutionalization of science, the emergence and activities of scientific associations, both formal and informal, and their fruitful interaction between them.However, such a question as the history and philosophy of science has not been considered at all.Gradually scientometrics allocate a separate area, which was called the psychology of science.In this direction, the key has been the subject of scientific work, its internal mechanisms and intuitive motives, reasons and factors of scientific insights of scientists, etc.At the same time, and began to develop such a direction as the economics of science, which is considered the financial specifics of the development of science, develop optimum schemes of financing the scientific field of activity, as well as the impact of economic factors on the development of industry bias in science, in particular the use of scientific achievements in production and efficiency.The emergence of these trends and their union in scientometrics were due to the special impact of science and its achievements in the society and its development.Later
any such disciplines as logic and the ethics of science, and many others.The knowledge gained in these areas have allowed to generalize all aware of the scientific disciplines and to form a single object and general theories, which eventually provoked the emergence of such a science as the philosophy of science.The philosophy of science is one of the sections of philosophy and includes areas such as history and methodology of science, the study of its borders, the etymology of science and others.With the development of the philosophy of scientific direction it has identified specific subsections, in particular the history of science, which, in turn, narrowly focused on shared components (natural history, social history and technical sciences, etc)
philosophy of science is widely represented in the works of both foreignand domestic scientists.This leads to the large number of original concepts that offer a variety of models of formation and development of science and epistemologii.Odnako key task for each of these concepts is to define the role and importance of scientific knowledge, characteristic of practical and theoretical work, its influence on the development of obschestva.Sotime, history and philosophy of science began to be considered a single coherent concept.

Thus, today the history and philosophy of science is a whole set of scientific areas and schools that respond to many questions concerning modern science and the history of its formation and development.